Altaic gú-hē, (Eng-gí: Altaic languages), iū-koh hoan-e̍k chòe A-le̍k-thài-gú-hē, A-ní-thài-gú-hē, sī chı̍t-ê àn-chiàu gú-giân hē-sio̍k hong-hoat só͘ pun chhut-lâi ê chı̍t-chó͘ ká-siat ê gú-hē, chú-iàu chiong Thut-khoat gú-cho̍k, Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k kap Thong-kó͘-su gú-cho̍k hōa-hun ûi chi̍t-ê gú-hē, ū-sî Tiâu-sián-gú, Liû-kiû-gú, Ji̍t-gú kap Ainu-gú iā ōe kui-lūi tī kî-tiong. Chit-ê gú-hē chú-iàu hun-pò͘ tī pak-hūi 35 tō͘ í-pak ê A-chiu í-ki̍p Tang-au tē-khu, oa̍h-tāng khu-e̍k chha-put-to tī Ji̍t-pún kap Thó͘-ní-kî chi-kan, pau-koat 60 goa̍h chióng gú-giân. chit-ê gú-hē ê miâ-chheng lâi-chū Tiong-a ê A-ní-thài soaⁿ-me̍h. Hiān-kim khah-chōe pí-kàu gú-giân-ha̍k-ka jīn-ûi chit-ê ká-soat pēng-bô sêng-li̍p[1][2][3][4][5]. Chóng-sī chit-ê ká-soat iû-goân ū chió-sò͘ ê ha̍k-chiá chi-chhî[6].

Nâ-sek: Turkic gú-cho̍k; Le̍k-sek: Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k; Âng-sek: Boán--Thong-kó͘-su gú-cho̍k; N̂g-sek: Tiâu-sián gú-cho̍k; Chí-sek: Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-cho̍k

Chit-ê ká-soat siōng-chá tī 18 sè-kí thê-chhut, tī 1960 nî-tāi hō͘ gú-giân-ha̍k-kài kóng-hoàn chiap-siū, jî-chhiáⁿ pian ji̍p-khì kàu-kho-su kap pah-kho-choân-su lāi-té. Tī 1950 nî-tāi khai-sí, chin-chōe goân-pún jīn-ûi sī tông-goân-sû ê tan-jī pī hoat-hiān pēng-m̄-sī tông-goân, Bông-kó͘-gú hām Thó͘-ní-kî-gú iā pī hoat-hiān sī chhu-tông ián-hòa, jî m̄-sī tùi kāng-chi̍t-ê chó͘-gú ián-piàn chòe kok-chióng hong-giân, gú-giân-ha̍k-chiá khai-sí jīn-ûi chit-ê ká-soat ê chèng-kù bô chhiong-chiok. Hoán-tùi-chiá koh jīn-ûi, che kúi ê gú-cho̍k chi-kan put-chí-á sio-siâng ê goân-in sī cho̍k-kûn chi-kan ê gú-giân chiap-chhiok tòa-lâi ê le̍k-sú kiat-kó.

Khí-thâu, chit-ê ká-soat kā Turkic gú-cho̍k, Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k kap Thong-kó͘-su gú-cho̍k kui-la̍p chòe-hóe, jīn-ûi in ū kâng-khoán ê khí-goân. Āu-lâi ha̍k-chiá thê-chhut 'A-ní-thài chhiau-gú-hē', chiong Tiâu-sián-gú, Ji̍t-gú iā pau-koat tī kî-tiong, tān-sī chit-ê ká-siat tn̂g-kî ū cheng-gī. Chhú-gōa, iā bat ū gú-giân-ha̍k-ka kā i hām Ural gú-hē pun chòe-hóe chó͘-sêng Ural-Altaic gú-hē. Сергей Анатольевич Старостин hām kî-thaⁿ gú-giân-ha̍k-chiá tì-le̍k û tiông-kiàn goân-sí Altaic-gú (Proto-Altaic language).

Altaic gú-hē tiong ū pau-koat 66 chióng gú-giân, ka-ji̍p liáu Liû-kiû-gú, Ji̍t-gú hām Tiâu-sián-gú ê chhiau-Altaic gú-hē kèng-ka sī pau-koat liáu 74 chióng gú-giân. chi̍t-kóa kó͘-tāi gú-giân, pí-jû Tiong-kó͘ Bông-kó͘-gú, Kó͘-tiâu-sián-gú hām Kó͘-ji̍t-gú it-poaⁿ bô kè-sǹg tī lāi-bīn.

Ū chi̍t-kóa ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi Hàn-chòng gú-hē kap Altaic gú-hē ū hoat-seng-ha̍k koan-hē. Pí-lūn-kóng, Lāi-bông-kó͘ kàu-siū Mang Muli hoat-hiān Bông-kó͘-gú í-ki̍p Hàn-gú lóng-chóng ū 3000 goa̍h ê sû-lūi[7]. Koh-ū, Turkic gú-cho̍k iā kap Hàn-gú sio-siâng: Thó͘-ní-kî-gú ê 'sui' kap Hàn-gú ê 'shui水' sio-siâng. Lēng-gōa, Altaic gú-hē ê 'tengri' sio-siâng Hàn-gú ê 'tian天'

Le̍k-súSiu-kái

1730 nî Sūi-tián kun-koaⁿ Philip Johan von Stahlenberg àn-chiàu gú-giân chi-kan ê siong-sū-sèng chiong gú-giân hun-lūi, kî-tiong pau-hâm chi̍t-kóa āu-lâi hō͘-lâng kui-ji̍p Altaic gú-hē ê gú-giân. 1844 nî Matthias Castrén siú-sian thê-chhut Altaic gú-hē, tû-liáu pau-koat Turkic, Bông-kó͘ hām Thong-kó͘-su-gú, iā la̍p-ji̍p āu-lâi chiâⁿ-chòe Ural gú-hē ê Samoyed gú-cho̍k kap Finno-Ugric gú-cho̍k.

Tī tōa-pòaⁿ ê 19 sè-kí í-ki̍p 20 sè-kí chho͘-kî, Altaic gú-hē he̍k-chiá sī Ural-Altaic gú-hē ê khài-liām liû-thoân kóng-hoàn. kūn-nî-lâi, iah-ū gú-giân-ha̍k-ka bô-koh chi-chhî chit-ê ká-soat, jīn-ûi Thut-khoat, Bông-kó͘ hām Thong-kó͘-su sī saⁿ-ê bô chhin-iân koan-hē ê gú-cho̍k, in chi-kan ê sio-siâng sī tn̂g-kî chiap-chhiok ê kiat-kó[8][9][10][11], jî chiong 'Altaic gú-giân' khòaⁿ-choh sī chi̍t-ē gú-giân liân-bêng.

Te̍k-tengSiu-kái

Bô-lūn chiah-ê kám-sī tông-goân koan-hē ê kiat-kó, Thut-khoat gú-cho̍k, Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k kap Thong-kó͘-su gú-cho̍k tek-khak ū bōe-chió te̍k-teng, chhiaⁿ khòaⁿ ē-tóe ê hoān-lē:

  • saⁿ-ê gú-cho̍k ê jîn-chheng tāi-sû ê siong-sū-sèng:
Jîn-chheng tāi-sû
Bông-kó͘-gú Turkic-gú Boán-gú
Tē-it jîn-chheng tan-sò͘ bi bän/män/men bi
Tē-jī jîn-chheng tan-sò͘ ci < *ti sän/sen si
Tē-it jîn-chheng ho̍k-sò͘ bid biz be (Pâi-tû-sek) / muse(Pau-koat-sek)
Tē-jī jîn-chheng ho̍k-sò͘ ta siz/silär suwe
  • Bông-kó͘-gú kap Turkic-gú-giân ū sio-siâng ê ho̍k-sò͘ hiō-tòe (Bông-kó͘-gú -nar/-ner, Turkic-gú -lar/lär).

Te̍k-tiámSiu-kái

  • Goân-im chú-iàu sī tan-goân-im, tông-sî ta̍k ê sû kè ū kò͘-tēng ê tiōng-im ūi-tì.
  • Sû ê hêng-thài kiat-kò͘ ho̍k-cha̍p, sû ū sû-kun, sû-kàn, sû-tòe ê hun-pia̍t, tōa-pō͘-hūn sio̍k-û liâm-tio̍k-gú.
  • Ū kek ê piàn-hòa kap hiō-tì-sû ê sú-iōng.
  • Kù ê pâi-lia̍t í SOV ûi-chú, ì-sù sī kóng, tī it-poaⁿ ê kù lāi-té, chú-gú tī thâu-chêng, ūi-gú tī āu-piah, pin-gú tī tiong-kan.
  • Goân-im hô-hâi lu̍t (he̍k-chiá kiò-chòe 'goân-im tiâu-hô')
  • Ū jîn-chheng hiō-tòe, pí-jû: tōng-sû jîn-chheng hiō-tòe, chiông-sio̍k jîn-chheng hiō-tòe, hoán-sin léng-sio̍k jîn-chheng hiō-tòe í-ki̍p Turkic gú-cho̍k te̍k-iú ê ūi-gú jîn-chheng hiō-tòe. Tōng-sû hiō-tòe, tī Khalkh Bông-kó͘-gú í-ki̍p Boán-gú tiong í-keng thè-hòa. Boán-gú tī chhòng-chō bûn-jī ê sî chiông-sio̍k jîn-chheng hiō-tòe bô piáu-ta̍t tī su-bīn-gú téng-bīn. Só͘-í kàu-taⁿ i tī Boán-gú chin-chōe hong-giân tiong í-keng thè-hòa khì. Tān-sī tī Xibe-gú (锡伯語) í-ki̍p kî-thaⁿ Thong-kó͘-su-gú tiong oân-choân pó-chûn lo̍h-lâi. Jî Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k pêng-siông kan-ta ēng jîn-chheng tāi-sû sio̍k-kek, hek tan-to̍k sú-iōng chiông-sio̍k hiō-tòe, pí-jû: (góa ê chheh) Mini bicig he̍k-chiá bicig-min, it-poaⁿ bōe nn̄g ê chòe-hōe ēng, chhin-chhiūⁿ: Mini bicig-min. Turkic gú-cho̍k kap Boán-gú-chi í-gōa ê Thong-kó͘-su gú-giân pêng-siông lióng-chiá kè ū leh ēng.

Hun-lūiSiu-kái

  • Turkic gú-cho̍k
    • Kwarezmian-gú
    • Kó͘-Turkic-gú
    • Kó͘-Uyghur-gú
    • Bulgar gú-chi (he̍k-chiá: Oguric gú-chi)
    • Karluk gú-chi
      • Aynu-gú (Sin-kiong ê Abdal-gú)
      • Chagatai-gú (í-keng bia̍t-choa̍t, sêng-ûi hiān-tāi Uyghur-gú, Uzbek-gú téng-téng)
      • Ili-Turkic-gú
      • Uyghur-gú (Tiong-kok Sin-kiong、Kazakhstan, 、Uzbekistan)
      • Uzbek-gú (Uzbekistan、Tiong-kok Sin-kiong、Afghanistan)
      • Sai-pō͘ Yughur-gú (Tiong-kok Kam-siok-séng Siok-lâm-koān)
    • Pak Turkic gú-chi
      • Altai-gú (Lō͘-se-a Liân-pang Altai Kiōng-hô-kok
      • Shor-gú
      • Dolgan-gú
      • Khakas-gú(Lō͘-se-a Liân-pang Khakas-kiōng-hô-kok)
      • Yakut-gú(Lō͘-se-a Liân-pang Sakha Kiōng-hô-kok
      • Tuvan-gú(Lō͘-se-a Liân-pang Tuva Kiōng-hô-kok
    • Lâm Turkic gú-chi
    • Sai Turkic gú-chi
      • Karakalpak-gú
      • Kazakh-gú(Kazakhstan、Tiong-kok Sin-kiong Uyghur Chū-tī-khu Ili Kazakh Chū-tī-chiu)
      • Kyrgyz-gú(Kirgiz,Kyrgyzstan、Tiong-kok Sin-kiong Uyghur Chū-tī-khu)
      • Bashkir-gú
      • Tartar-gú(Lō͘-se-a Liân-pang Tatarstan Kiōng-hô-kok
  • Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k
    • Khitan-gú(kó͘-tāi gú-giân)
    • Dagur-gú(Tiong-kok Hek-liông-kang-séng、Lāi Bông-kó͘ Chū-tī-khu、Sin-kiong Uyghur Chū-tī-khu)
    • Santa-gú (mā kiò-choè Dongxiang-gú)
    • Buryatia-gú(Lō͘-se-a Liân-pang Buryatia Kiōng-hô-kok
    • Bông-kó͘-gú(Bông-kó͘-kok、Tiong-kok Lāi Bông-kó͘ Chū-tī-khu)
  • Boán--Thong-kó͘-su gú-cho̍k
    • Even-gú
    • Evenki-gú(chìn-chêng chheng-choè Thong-kó͘-su-gú)
    • Oroqen-gú(Tiong-kok tang-pak)
    • Boán-gú(pin-gûi gú-giân, Tiong-kok tang-pak)
    • Hezhen-gú(Nanai-gú、Gold-gú)
    • Xibe-gú(Tiong-kok tang-pak)
    • Jurchen-gú (kó͘-tāi gú-giân)

Cheng-gīSiu-kái

Altaic gú-hē kám chiâⁿ-si̍t chûn-chāi, kàu-taⁿ koh ū cheng-gī. Ū ê gú-giân-ha̍k-ka jīn-ûi Turkic gú-chio̍k, Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k kap Thong-kó͘-su gú-cho̍k saⁿ chióng gú-cho̍k chi-kan bô tông-goân koan-hē, chiah-ê hoán-tùi Altaic gú-hē ê ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi, chiah-ê gú-cho̍k sui-jiân ū chin-chōe sio-kâng ê gú-hoat te̍k-tiám kap kiōng-tông sû-lūi, chóng-sī che sī in-ūi tn̂g-kî ê bîn-cho̍k chiap-chhiok, hō͘-siong iông-ha̍p chiah sán-seng ê, sī chioh-iōng ê kiat-kó, pēng-m̄-sī goân-sí-gú ûi-liû lo̍h-lâi ê goân-sí te̍k-teng. It-poaⁿ jīn-ûi sī Bông-kó͘-gú chioh-iōng Turkic-gú ê sû-lūi hām gú-hoat hêng-thài. Bo̍k-chêng chit-ê būn-tôe koh tī gī-lūn chi-tiong.

Lēng-gōa koan-û Ji̍t-gú, Tiâu-sián-gú kám-sī sio̍k-û Altaic gú-hē iā chō-sêng liáu chin tōa ê cheng-gī. Chi̍t-kóa ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi nā-sī kā Ji̍t-gú, Tiâu-sián-gú khǹg tī Altaic gú-hē chi-gōa ē-tàng koh-khah khek-koan, mā ōe kiám-chió chit-ê gú-hē chûn-chāi ê cheng-gī.

Altaic chhiau-gú-hē ká-soatSiu-kái

Ha̍k-kài phó͘-phiàn jīn-ûi Ji̍t-gú kap Liû-kiû-gú chòe-hōe sio̍k-û bó͘-chi̍t-ê gú-hē. Ká-sú che nn̄g ê gú-giân bô pēng-ji̍p kî-thaⁿ gú-hē, tio̍h to̍k-li̍p chòe chi̍t ê Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē.

Tān-sī Tiâu-sián-gú, Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē ê hē-sio̍k it-ti̍t lóng sī ha̍k-su̍t-kài cheng-lūn ê chiau-tiám. Ki-pún ū 4 lūi koan-tiám.

Tē-it-lūi koan-tiám jīn-ûi Tiâu-sián-gú, Ji̍t-gú, Liû-kiû-gú tio̍h-sǹg sio̍k-û Altaic gú-hē, iā kan-ta ē-sái tī Altaic chhiau-gú-hē ká-soat (Macro-Altaic theory) ê ki-chhó͘ siōng sêng-li̍p. In-ūi Tiâu-sián-gú ū chi̍t-kóa Altaic gú-hē ê te̍k-teng, jî Ji̍t-gú kap Tiâu-sián-gú iū-koh ū bōe-chió lūi-sū ê só͘-chāi.

  • liû-im bōe-ōe chhut-hiān tī pún-thó͘-sû (kò͘-iú-sû) ê thâu-chi̍t-ê im-chiat.
  • goân-im hô-hâi-lu̍t(he̍k-chiá kiò goân-im tiâu-hô)
  • liâm-tio̍k-gú ê te̍k-teng

Tān-sī Tiâu-sián-gú, Ji̍t-gú, Liû-kiû-gú lóng-bô jîn-chheng hiō-tòe, pí-jû Thong-kó͘-su-gú (Hezhen) Mini bithe-i (góa ê chheh), Bi mini bithe-we-i hvla-i (góa tha̍k góa ê chheh). Bithe-we-i tiong ê we sī siū-kek hiō-toè, tông-sî 'i' sī tē-it jîn-chheng léng-sio̍k hiō-tòe. 'hvla-i' tiong ê 'i' sī tōng-sû tē-it jîn-chheng hiō-tòe. Bông-kó͘-gú 'Teguu-d-mini og' (hō͘ góa sió-tī). 'd' sī ú-kek hiō-tòe, 'mini' sī tē-it jîn-chheng léng-sio̍k hiō-tòe.

Tiâu-sián-gú ê che 3 ê gú-giân te̍k-teng ūi chit-ê koan-tiám thê-kiong liáu hui-siông ū-la̍t ê chi-chhî. Tān-sī in-ūi Tiâu-sián-gú hām Altaic gú-hē ê kî-thaⁿ gú-giân chi-kan ê tông-goân-sû put-chí-á chió (Ji̍t-gú bô), só͘-í hoán-tùi chit-ê koan-tiám ê ha̍k-chiá it-poaⁿ lóng kā che chok-ûi hoán-pok ê kiông-tāi chèng-kù.

Koan-û goân-im hô-hâi-lu̍t, chit-chióng gú-giân te̍k-teng iá pēng-m̄-sī Altaic gú-hē ê choan-lī. Altac gú-hē chiu-piⁿ, Pak-a Chukotko-Kamchatka gú-hē的Chukotko-gú,Tang-a Tibeto-Burma gú-cho̍k的Jingpho-gú、Qiang-gú iā chûn-chāi he̍k-chiá sī chân-liû tio̍h goân-im hô-hâi ê hiān-siōng, jî Hui-chiu Niger-Congo gú-hēê chin-chōe gú-giân, pau-koat Igbo-gú hām chin-choē Bantu gú-cho̍k ê gú-giân, iah-ū í chhùi-chi̍h ê ūi-tì ûi ki-chhó͘ ê goân-im hô-hâi ê hiān-siōng chûn-chāi.

jî-chhiáⁿ liâm-tio̍k-gú ê te̍k-teng kèng-ka m̄ sī kan-ta Altaic gú-hē chiah ū. Tī sè-kài kî-thaⁿ gú-hē tiong kóng-hoàn chûn-chāi chit-ê hiān-siōng: Au-chiu kap Pak-a ê Ural gú-hē, Ìn-tō͘ ê Dravidian gú-hē, kóng-hoàn hun-pō͘ tī A-chiu, Ò-chiu kap Hui-chiu ê Lâm-tó gú-hē téng-téng lóng sī í liâm-tio̍k-gú ûi chú-thé ê gú-hē. Kīn-lîn Altaic gú-hē ê Tibeto-Burma gú-cho̍k iā-sī í liâm-tio̍k-gú kap thè-hòa ê liâm-tio̍k-gú kò͘-sêng ê gú-cho̍k.

Tē-jī-lūi koan-tiám jīn-ûi Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē kap Tiâu-sián-gú kiōng-tông sio̍k-û chi̍t ê sin ê gú-hē. Ū chit-chióng koan-tiám ê ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi Ji̍t-gú ê bûn-hoat hām Tiâu-sián-gú ê bûn-hoat lóng sī SOV sūn-sī (kî-thaⁿ Altaic gú-giân mā sī án-ni), jî-chhiáⁿ lióng-chiá le̍k-sú siōng iū kiōng-tông siū-tio̍h Kó͘-hàn-gú ê kiông-lia̍t éng-hióng. Só͘-í ū ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē kap Tiâu-sián-gú sī Altaic gú-hē kap Sino-Tibetan gú-hē hūn-ha̍p ê sin-gú-hē. Tān-sī Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē kap Tiâu-sián-gú chi-kan kâng-khoán khoeh-chió tông-goân-sû. Che mā sī piàn-sêng hoán-tùi-chiá ū-la̍t ê chèng-kù.

Tē 3 lūi koan-tiám jīn-ûi Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē kap Tiâu-sián-gú kāng-khoán, kè sī ko͘-li̍p gú-giân, in kap bo̍k-chêng sè-kài siōng lán í-keng ū jīn-sek ê gú-giân lóng-bô koan-liân. Chiah-ê ha̍k-chiá ēng 'tông-goân-sû būn-tôe' lâi chi-chhî in ê koan-tiám.

Tē 4 lūi koan-tiám jīn-ûi Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gu-hē eng-tong kui-sio̍k Sino-Tibetan gú-hē Tibeto-Burma gú-cho̍k, chú-iàu í Nishida Tatsuo ûi tāi-piáu ê chi̍t-kóa ha̍k-chiá, jīn-ûi Ji̍t-gú ê gú-sī hām Burmese-gú téng choa̍t-tāi-to-sò͘ Tibeto-Burma-gú (tû Karenic-gú hām Bai-gú í-gōa, che nn̄g chióng gú-giân hun-pia̍t siū-tio̍h SVO ê Thài-gú kap Hàn-gú éng-hióng, mā piàn-sêng SVO gú-sī) sio-kāng, jî-chhiáⁿ Ji̍t-gú kò͘-iú-jī-lūi tiong iā ū hām Burmese-gú í-ki̍p Tiong-kok lâm-pō͘ hong-giân chiap-kūn ê jī-lūi, sīm-chì tī im-ūn siōng iā ū bōe-chió sio-siâng ê só͘-chāi, in-chhú chú-tiuⁿ Ji̍t-gú èng-kai sio̍k-û Tibeto-Burma gú-cho̍k. Chóng-sī, hoán-tùi ê lâng jīn-ûi, Ji̍t-pún kap Tibeto-Burma bîn-cho̍k chi-kan lō͘-tô͘ hn̄g-hn̄g, tiong-kan koh ū Lâm-tó gú-hē kap Boán--Thong-kó͘-su bîn-cho̍k ê tōe-khu, in-chhú chit-ê koan-tiám bô tit--tio̍h tiōng-sī. Tān-sī koh ū ha̍k-chiá thê-chhut èng-tong í bîn-cho̍k î-bîn ê le̍k-sú lâi khòaⁿ-thāi chit-ê ká-soat. In kóng: sui-jiân hiān-chú-sî ê bîn-cho̍k hun-pò͘ khòaⁿ-khí-lâi Ji̍t-púnkap Tibeto-Burma bîn-cho̍k chi-kan chin hn̄g, tān-sī tī Siong-Chiu sî-kî, chi̍t-kóa Tibeto-Burma gú-cho̍k, lâm-chi kó͘-a-chiu-cho̍k (shimada) kap Lâm-tó gú-cho̍k hūn-ha̍p, pēng-chhiáⁿ tī Sino-Tibetan (Chiu) bîn-cho̍k kiông-tāi ê ap-le̍k hā hâng-hái pak-siōng he̍k-chiá lâm-hā keng-kè Tiâu-sián poàn-tó chìn-ji̍p Kiú-chiu-tó tēng-ku. Hit-tong-sî, Thong-kó͘-su-cho̍k (Altaic gú-hē) iáu-bōe tī Bông-kó͘ ko-goân kap Pak-chi kó͘-a-chiu-cho̍k (taⁿ ê Chukotko kap Tiâu-sián-cho̍k pak-pō͘ ê goân-sí bîn-cho̍k) kèng-cheng, chit-chióng kóng-hoat iā put-chí-ū tō-lí.

Tû-liáu í-siōng 4 lūi koan-tiám í-gōa, koh ū ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē èng-tong sio̍k-û Lâm-tó gú-hē, Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē hām Lâm-tó gú-hē tī kò͘-sû siōng ū sio-siâng ê só͘-chāi, soah kap Altaic gú-hē lí-lūn kāng-khoán khoeh-chió tông-goân-sû ê chèng-kù.

Chòe-kūn ū lâng thê-chhut tī Altaic gú-hē chi-hā kò͘-kiàn sin-gú-cho̍k (Hân-Ji̍t--Liû-kiû gú-cho̍k) pēng-chhiáⁿ chiong Tiâu-sián-gú, Liû-kiû-gú í-ki̍p Ji̍t-gú lóng kui-ji̍p chit-ê gú-cho̍k chi-lāi. Chit-ê koan-tiám bêng-hián sī tē 1 lūi kap tē 2 lūi ê hūn-ha̍p koan-tiám, tān-sī i iû-goân ài bīn-tùi 'tông-goân-sû būn-tôe'.

Chham-khó bûn-hiànSiu-kái

Ín-iōngSiu-kái

  1. "While 'Altaic' is repeated in encyclopedias and handbooks most specialists in these languages no longer believe that the three traditional supposed Altaic groups, Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic, are related." Lyle Campbell & Mauricio J. Mixco, A Glossary of Historical Linguistics (2007, University of Utah Press), pg. 7.
  2. "When cognates proved not to be valid, Altaic was abandoned, and the received view now is that Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic are unrelated." Johanna Nichols, Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time (1992, Chicago), pg. 4.
  3. "Careful examination indicates that the established families, Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic, form a linguistic area (called Altaic)...Sufficient criteria have not been given that would justify talking of a genetic relationship here." R.M.W. Dixon, The Rise and Fall of Languages (1997, Cambridge), pg. 32.
  4. "...[T]his selection of features does not provide good evidence for common descent" and "we can observe convergence rather than divergence between Turkic and Mongolic languages--a pattern than is easily explainable by borrowing and diffusion rather than common descent", Asya Pereltsvaig, Languages of the World, An Introduction (2012, Cambridge) has a good discussion of the Altaic hypothesis (pp. 211-216).
  5. Georg et al. 1999: 73–74
  6. Stefan Georg, Peter A. Michalove, Alexis Manaster Ramer, and Paul J. Sidwell (1999): "Telling general linguists about Altaic". Journal of Linguistics, volume 35, issue 1, pages 65–98.
  7. "Han-Tibetan, Altaic Languages "Close Relatives"". german.china.org.cn. 2020-02-15 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  8. "While 'Altaic' is repeated in encyclopedias and handbooks most specialists in these languages no longer believe that the three traditional supposed Altaic groups, Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic, are related." Lyle Campbell & Mauricio J. Mixco, A Glossary of Historical Linguistics (2007, University of Utah Press), pg. 7.
  9. "Careful examination indicates that the established families, Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic, form a linguistic area (called Altaic)...Sufficient criteria have not been given that would justify talking of a genetic relationship here." R.M.W. Dixon, The Rise and Fall of Languages (1997, Cambridge), pg. 32.
  10. "When cognates proved not to be valid, Altaic was abandoned, and the received view now is that Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic are unrelated." Johanna Nichols, Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time (1992, Chicago), pg. 4.
  11. "...[T]his selection of features does not provide good evidence for common descent" and "we can observe convergence rather than divergence between Turkic and Mongolic languages--a pattern than is easily explainable by borrowing and diffusion rather than common descent", Asya Pereltsvaig, Languages of the World, An Introduction (2012, Cambridge) has a good discussion of the Altaic hypothesis (pp. 211-216).