Altai gú-hē

(Tùi Altaic gú-hē choán--lâi)

Altai gú-hē (Eng-gí: Altaic languages) sī chi̍t-ê àn-chiàu gú-giân hē-sio̍k hong-hoat só͘ pun chhut-lâi ê chi̍t-chó͘ ká-siat ê gú-hē, chú-iàu chiong Thut-khoat gú-cho̍k, Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k kap Tungus gú-cho̍k hōa-hun ûi chi̍t-ê gú-hē, ū-sî Tiâu-sián-gú, Liû-kiû-gú, Ji̍t-gú kap Ainu-gú iā ōe kui-lūi tī kî-tiong. Chit-ê gú-hē chú-iàu hun-pò͘ tī pak-hūi 35 tō͘ í-pak ê A-chiu í-ki̍p Tang-au tē-khu, oa̍h-tāng khu-e̍k chha-put-to tī Ji̍t-pún kap Thó͘-ní-kî chi-kan, pau-koat 60 goa̍h chióng gú-giân. chit-ê gú-hē ê miâ-chheng lâi-chū Tiong-a ê Altai soaⁿ-me̍h. Hiān-kim khah-chōe pí-kàu gú-giân-ha̍k-ka jīn-ûi chit-ê ká-soat pēng-bô sêng-li̍p[1][2][3][4][5]. Chóng-sī chit-ê ká-soat iû-goân ū chió-sò͘ ê ha̍k-chiá chi-chhî[6].

Nâ-sek: Turk gú-cho̍k; Le̍k-sek: Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k; Âng-sek: Tungus gú-cho̍k; N̂g-sek: Tiâu-sián gú-cho̍k; Chí-sek: Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-cho̍k

Chit-ê ká-soat siōng-chá tī 18 sè-kí thê-chhut, tī 1960 nî-tāi hō͘ gú-giân-ha̍k-kài kóng-hoàn chiap-siū, jî-chhiáⁿ pian ji̍p-khì kàu-kho-su kap pah-kho-choân-su lāi-té. Tī 1950 nî-tāi khai-sí, chin-chōe goân-pún jīn-ûi sī tông-goân-sû ê tan-jī pī hoat-hiān pēng-m̄-sī tông-goân, Bông-kó͘-gú hām Thó͘-ní-kî-gú iā pī hoat-hiān sī chhu-tông ián-hòa, jî m̄-sī tùi kāng-chi̍t-ê chó͘-gú ián-piàn chòe kok-chióng hong-giân, gú-giân-ha̍k-chiá khai-sí jīn-ûi chit-ê ká-soat ê chèng-kù bô chhiong-chiok. Hoán-tùi-chiá koh jīn-ûi, che kúi ê gú-cho̍k chi-kan put-chí-á sio-siâng ê goân-in sī cho̍k-kûn chi-kan ê gú-giân chiap-chhiok tòa-lâi ê le̍k-sú kiat-kó.

Khí-thâu, chit-ê ká-soat kā Turk gú-cho̍k, Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k kap Tungus gú-cho̍k kui-la̍p chòe-hóe, jīn-ûi in ū kâng-khoán ê khí-goân. Āu-lâi ha̍k-chiá thê-chhut 'Altai chhiau-gú-hē', chiong Tiâu-sián-gú, Ji̍t-gú iā pau-koat tī kî-tiong, tān-sī chit-ê ká-siat tn̂g-kî ū cheng-gī. Chhú-gōa, iā bat ū gú-giân-ha̍k-ka kā i hām Ural gú-hē pun chòe-hóe chó͘-sêng Ural-Altai gú-hē. Сергей Анатольевич Старостин hām kî-thaⁿ gú-giân-ha̍k-chiá tì-le̍k û tiông-kiàn goân-sí Altai-gú (Proto-Altaic language).

Altai gú-hē tiong ū pau-koat 66 chióng gú-giân, ka-ji̍p liáu Liû-kiû-gú, Ji̍t-gú hām Tiâu-sián-gú ê chhiau-Altai gú-hē kèng-ka sī pau-koat liáu 74 chióng gú-giân. chi̍t-kóa kó͘-tāi gú-giân, pí-jû Tiong-kó͘ Bông-kó͘-gú, Kó͘-tiâu-sián-gú hām Kó͘-ji̍t-gú it-poaⁿ bô kè-sǹg tī lāi-bīn.

Ū chi̍t-kóa ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi Hàn-chòng gú-hē kap Altai gú-hē ū hoat-seng-ha̍k koan-hē. Pí-lūn-kóng, Lāi-bông-kó͘ kàu-siū Mang Muli hoat-hiān Bông-kó͘-gú í-ki̍p Hàn-gú lóng-chóng ū 3000 goa̍h ê sû-lūi[7]. Koh-ū, Turk gú-cho̍k iā kap Hàn-gú sio-siâng: Thó͘-ní-kî-gú ê 'sui' kap Hàn-gú ê 'shui水' sio-siâng. Lēng-gōa, Altai gú-hē ê 'tengri' sio-siâng Hàn-gú ê 'tian天'

Le̍k-súSiu-kái

1730 nî Sūi-tián kun-koaⁿ Philip Johan von Stahlenberg àn-chiàu gú-giân chi-kan ê siong-sū-sèng chiong gú-giân hun-lūi, kî-tiong pau-hâm chi̍t-kóa āu-lâi hō͘-lâng kui-ji̍p Altai gú-hē ê gú-giân. 1844 nî Matthias Castrén siú-sian thê-chhut Altai gú-hē, tû-liáu pau-koat Turk, Bông-kó͘ hām Tungus-gú, iā la̍p-ji̍p āu-lâi chiâⁿ-chòe Ural gú-hē ê Samoyed gú-cho̍k kap Finno-Ugric gú-cho̍k.

Tī tōa-pòaⁿ ê 19 sè-kí í-ki̍p 20 sè-kí chho͘-kî, Altai gú-hē he̍k-chiá sī Ural-Altai gú-hē ê khài-liām liû-thoân kóng-hoàn. kūn-nî-lâi, iah-ū gú-giân-ha̍k-ka bô-koh chi-chhî chit-ê ká-soat, jīn-ûi Thut-khoat, Bông-kó͘ hām Tungus sī saⁿ-ê bô chhin-iân koan-hē ê gú-cho̍k, in chi-kan ê sio-siâng sī tn̂g-kî chiap-chhiok ê kiat-kó[8][9][10][11], jî chiong 'Altai gú-giân' khòaⁿ-choh sī chi̍t-ē gú-giân liân-bêng.

Te̍k-tengSiu-kái

Bô-lūn chiah-ê kám-sī tông-goân koan-hē ê kiat-kó, Thut-khoat gú-cho̍k, Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k kap Tungus gú-cho̍k tek-khak ū bōe-chió te̍k-teng, chhiaⁿ khòaⁿ ē-tóe ê hoān-lē:

  • saⁿ-ê gú-cho̍k ê jîn-chheng tāi-sû ê siong-sū-sèng:
Jîn-chheng tāi-sû
Bông-kó͘-gú Turk-gú Boán-chiu-gú
Tē-it jîn-chheng tan-sò͘ bi bän/män/men bi
Tē-jī jîn-chheng tan-sò͘ ci < *ti sän/sen si
Tē-it jîn-chheng ho̍k-sò͘ bid biz be (Pâi-tû-sek) / muse(Pau-koat-sek)
Tē-jī jîn-chheng ho̍k-sò͘ ta siz/silär suwe
  • Bông-kó͘-gú kap Turk gú-giân ū sio-siâng ê ho̍k-sò͘ hiō-tòe (Bông-kó͘-gú -nar/-ner, Turk-gú -lar/lär).

Te̍k-tiámSiu-kái

  • Goân-im chú-iàu sī tan-goân-im, tông-sî ta̍k ê sû kè ū kò͘-tēng ê tiōng-im ūi-tì.
  • Sû ê hêng-thài kiat-kò͘ ho̍k-cha̍p, sû ū sû-kun, sû-kàn, sû-tòe ê hun-pia̍t, tōa-pō͘-hūn sio̍k-û liâm-tio̍k-gú.
  • Ū kek ê piàn-hòa kap hiō-tì-sû ê sú-iōng.
  • Kù ê pâi-lia̍t í SOV ûi-chú, ì-sù sī kóng, tī it-poaⁿ ê kù lāi-té, chú-gú tī thâu-chêng, ūi-gú tī āu-piah, pin-gú tī tiong-kan.
  • Goân-im hô-hâi lu̍t (he̍k-chiá kiò-chòe 'goân-im tiâu-hô')
  • Ū jîn-chheng hiō-tòe, pí-jû: tōng-sû jîn-chheng hiō-tòe, chiông-sio̍k jîn-chheng hiō-tòe, hoán-sin léng-sio̍k jîn-chheng hiō-tòe í-ki̍p Turk gú-cho̍k te̍k-iú ê ūi-gú jîn-chheng hiō-tòe. Tōng-sû hiō-tòe, tī Khalkh Bông-kó͘-gú í-ki̍p Boán-chiu-gú tiong í-keng thè-hòa. Boán-chiu-gú tī chhòng-chō bûn-jī ê sî chiông-sio̍k jîn-chheng hiō-tòe bô piáu-ta̍t tī su-bīn-gú téng-bīn. Só͘-í kàu-taⁿ i tī Boán-chiu-gú chin-chōe hong-giân tiong í-keng thè-hòa khì. Tān-sī tī Sek-peh-gú (锡伯語) í-ki̍p kî-thaⁿ Tungus-gú tiong oân-choân pó-chûn lo̍h-lâi. Jî Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k pêng-siông kan-ta ēng jîn-chheng tāi-sû sio̍k-kek, hek tan-to̍k sú-iōng chiông-sio̍k hiō-tòe, pí-jû: (góa ê chheh) Mini bicig he̍k-chiá bicig-min, it-poaⁿ bōe nn̄g ê chòe-hōe ēng, chhin-chhiūⁿ: Mini bicig-min. Turk gú-cho̍k kap Boán-chiu-gú-chi í-gōa ê Tungus gú-giân pêng-siông lióng-chiá kè ū leh ēng.

Hun-lūiSiu-kái

  • Turk gú-cho̍k
    • Khwarazm-gú
    • Kó͘-Turk-gú
    • Kó͘-Uyghur-gú
    • Bulgar gú-chi (he̍k-chiá: Oghur gú-chi)
    • Karluk gú-chi
      • Aynu-gú (Sin-kiong ê Abdal-gú)
      • Chagatai-gú (í-keng bia̍t-choa̍t, sêng-ûi hiān-tāi Uyghur-gú, Uzbek-gú téng-téng)
      • Ili-Turk-gú
      • Uyghur-gú (Tiong-kok Sin-kiong, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan)
      • Uzbek-gú (Uzbekistan, Tiong-kok Sin-kiong, Afghanistan)
      • Sai-pō͘ Yughur-gú (Tiong-kok Kam-siok-séng Siok-lâm-koān)
    • Pak Turk gú-chi
      • Altai-gú (Lō͘-se-a Liân-pang Altai Kiōng-hô-kok)
      • Shor-gú
      • Dolgan-gú
      • Khakas-gú(Lō͘-se-a Liân-pang Khakas-kiōng-hô-kok)
      • Yakut-gú(Lō͘-se-a Liân-pang Sakha Kiōng-hô-kok)
      • Tuvan-gú(Lō͘-se-a Liân-pang Tuva Kiōng-hô-kok)
    • Lâm Turk gú-chi
    • Sai Turk gú-chi
      • Karakalpak-gú
      • Kazakh-gú(Kazakhstan, Tiong-kok Sin-kiong Uyghur Chū-tī-khu Ili Kazakh Chū-tī-chiu)
      • Kyrgyz-gú(Kirgiz, Kyrgyzstan, Tiong-kok Sin-kiong Uyghur Chū-tī-khu)
      • Bashkir-gú
      • Tartar-gú(Lō͘-se-a Liân-pang Tatarstan Kiōng-hô-kok)
  • Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k
    • Khitan-gú (kó͘-tāi gú-giân)
    • Dagur-gú (Tiong-kok Hek-liông-kang-séng, Lāi Bông-kó͘ Chū-tī-khu, Sin-kiong Uyghur Chū-tī-khu)
    • Santa-gú (mā kiò-choè Tong-hiong-gú)
    • Buryatia-gú (Lō͘-se-a Liân-pang Buryatia Kiōng-hô-kok)
    • Bông-kó͘-gú (Bông-kó͘-kok, Tiong-kok Lāi Bông-kó͘ Chū-tī-khu)
  • Tungus gú-cho̍k
    • Even-gú
    • Evenk-gú (chìn-chêng chheng-choè Tungus-gú)
    • Oroqen-gú (Tiong-kok tang-pak)
    • Boán-chiu-gí (pin-gûi gú-giân, Tiong-kok tang-pak)
    • Hek-tiat-gú(Nanai-gú, Gold-gú)
    • Sek-peh-gú(Tiong-kok tang-pak)
    • Lú-chin-gú (kó͘-tāi gú-giân)

Cheng-gīSiu-kái

Altai gú-hē kám chiâⁿ-si̍t chûn-chāi, kàu-taⁿ koh ū cheng-gī. Ū ê gú-giân-ha̍k-ka jīn-ûi Turk gú-chio̍k, Bông-kó͘ gú-cho̍k kap Tungus gú-cho̍k saⁿ chióng gú-cho̍k chi-kan bô tông-goân koan-hē, chiah-ê hoán-tùi Altai gú-hē ê ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi, chiah-ê gú-cho̍k sui-jiân ū chin-chōe sio-kâng ê gú-hoat te̍k-tiám kap kiōng-tông sû-lūi, chóng-sī che sī in-ūi tn̂g-kî ê bîn-cho̍k chiap-chhiok, hō͘-siong iông-ha̍p chiah sán-seng ê, sī chioh-iōng ê kiat-kó, pēng-m̄-sī goân-sí-gú ûi-liû lo̍h-lâi ê goân-sí te̍k-teng. It-poaⁿ jīn-ûi sī Bông-kó͘-gú chioh-iōng Turk-gú ê sû-lūi hām gú-hoat hêng-thài. Bo̍k-chêng chit-ê būn-tôe koh tī gī-lūn chi-tiong.

Lēng-gōa koan-û Ji̍t-gú, Tiâu-sián-gú kám-sī sio̍k-û Altai gú-hē iā chō-sêng liáu chin tōa ê cheng-gī. Chi̍t-kóa ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi nā-sī kā Ji̍t-gú, Tiâu-sián-gú khǹg tī Altai gú-hē chi-gōa ē-tàng koh-khah khek-koan, mā ōe kiám-chió chit-ê gú-hē chûn-chāi ê cheng-gī.

Altai chhiau-gú-hē ká-soatSiu-kái

Ha̍k-kài phó͘-phiàn jīn-ûi Ji̍t-gú kap Liû-kiû-gú chòe-hōe sio̍k-û bó͘-chi̍t-ê gú-hē. Ká-sú che nn̄g ê gú-giân bô pēng-ji̍p kî-thaⁿ gú-hē, tio̍h to̍k-li̍p chòe chi̍t ê Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē.

Tān-sī Tiâu-sián-gú, Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē ê hē-sio̍k it-ti̍t lóng sī ha̍k-su̍t-kài cheng-lūn ê chiau-tiám. Ki-pún ū 4 lūi koan-tiám.

Tē-it-lūi koan-tiám jīn-ûi Tiâu-sián-gú, Ji̍t-gú, Liû-kiû-gú tio̍h-sǹg sio̍k-û Altai gú-hē, iā kan-ta ē-sái tī Altai chhiau-gú-hē ká-soat (Macro-Altaic theory) ê ki-chhó͘ siōng sêng-li̍p. In-ūi Tiâu-sián-gú ū chi̍t-kóa Altai gú-hē ê te̍k-teng, jî Ji̍t-gú kap Tiâu-sián-gú iū-koh ū bōe-chió lūi-sū ê só͘-chāi.

  • liû-im bōe-ōe chhut-hiān tī pún-thó͘-sû (kò͘-iú-sû) ê thâu-chi̍t-ê im-chiat.
  • goân-im hô-hâi-lu̍t(he̍k-chiá kiò goân-im tiâu-hô)
  • liâm-tio̍k-gú ê te̍k-teng

Tān-sī Tiâu-sián-gú, Ji̍t-gú, Liû-kiû-gú lóng-bô jîn-chheng hiō-tòe, pí-jû Tungus-gú (Hezhen) Mini bithe-i (góa ê chheh), Bi mini bithe-we-i hvla-i (góa tha̍k góa ê chheh). Bithe-we-i tiong ê we sī siū-kek hiō-toè, tông-sî 'i' sī tē-it jîn-chheng léng-sio̍k hiō-tòe. 'hvla-i' tiong ê 'i' sī tōng-sû tē-it jîn-chheng hiō-tòe. Bông-kó͘-gú 'Teguu-d-mini og' (hō͘ góa sió-tī). 'd' sī ú-kek hiō-tòe, 'mini' sī tē-it jîn-chheng léng-sio̍k hiō-tòe.

Tiâu-sián-gú ê che 3 ê gú-giân te̍k-teng ūi chit-ê koan-tiám thê-kiong liáu hui-siông ū-la̍t ê chi-chhî. Tān-sī in-ūi Tiâu-sián-gú hām Altai gú-hē ê kî-thaⁿ gú-giân chi-kan ê tông-goân-sû put-chí-á chió (Ji̍t-gú bô), só͘-í hoán-tùi chit-ê koan-tiám ê ha̍k-chiá it-poaⁿ lóng kā che chok-ûi hoán-pok ê kiông-tāi chèng-kù.

Koan-û goân-im hô-hâi-lu̍t, chit-chióng gú-giân te̍k-teng iá pēng-m̄-sī Altai gú-hē ê choan-lī. Altac gú-hē chiu-piⁿ, Pak-a Chukotko-Kamchatka gú-hē ê Chukotko-gú, Tang-a Chōng-Bián gú-cho̍k (Tibeto-Burma languages) ê Kéng-pho-gú (景頗語), Kiuⁿ-gú (羌語) iā chûn-chāi he̍k-chiá sī chân-liû tio̍h goân-im hô-hâi ê hiān-siōng, jî Hui-chiu Niger-Congo gú-hēê chin-chōe gú-giân, pau-koat Igbo-gú hām chin-choē Bantu gú-cho̍k ê gú-giân, iah-ū í chhùi-chi̍h ê ūi-tì ûi ki-chhó͘ ê goân-im hô-hâi ê hiān-siōng chûn-chāi.

jî-chhiáⁿ liâm-tio̍k-gú ê te̍k-teng kèng-ka m̄ sī kan-ta Altai gú-hē chiah ū. Tī sè-kài kî-thaⁿ gú-hē tiong kóng-hoàn chûn-chāi chit-ê hiān-siōng: Au-chiu kap Pak-a ê Ural gú-hē, Ìn-tō͘ ê Dravidian gú-hē, kóng-hoàn hun-pō͘ tī A-chiu, Ò-chiu kap Hui-chiu ê Lâm-tó gú-hē téng-téng lóng sī í liâm-tio̍k-gú ûi chú-thé ê gú-hē. Kīn-lîn Altai gú-hē ê Chōng-Bián gú-cho̍k iā-sī í liâm-tio̍k-gú kap thè-hòa ê liâm-tio̍k-gú kò͘-sêng ê gú-cho̍k.

Tē-jī-lūi koan-tiám jīn-ûi Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē kap Tiâu-sián-gú kiōng-tông sio̍k-û chi̍t ê sin ê gú-hē. Ū chit-chióng koan-tiám ê ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi Ji̍t-gú ê bûn-hoat hām Tiâu-sián-gú ê bûn-hoat lóng sī SOV sūn-sī (kî-thaⁿ Altai gú-giân mā sī án-ni), jî-chhiáⁿ lióng-chiá le̍k-sú siōng iū kiōng-tông siū-tio̍h Kó͘-hàn-gú ê kiông-lia̍t éng-hióng. Só͘-í ū ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē kap Tiâu-sián-gú sī Altai gú-hē kap Sino-Tibetan gú-hē hūn-ha̍p ê sin-gú-hē. Tān-sī Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē kap Tiâu-sián-gú chi-kan kâng-khoán khoeh-chió tông-goân-sû. Che mā sī piàn-sêng hoán-tùi-chiá ū-la̍t ê chèng-kù.

Tē 3 lūi koan-tiám jīn-ûi Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē kap Tiâu-sián-gú kāng-khoán, kè sī ko͘-li̍p gú-giân, in kap bo̍k-chêng sè-kài siōng lán í-keng ū jīn-sek ê gú-giân lóng-bô koan-liân. Chiah-ê ha̍k-chiá ēng 'tông-goân-sû būn-tôe' lâi chi-chhî in ê koan-tiám.

Tē 4 lūi koan-tiám jīn-ûi Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gu-hē eng-tong kui-sio̍k Hàn-Chōng gí-hē Chōng-Bián gú-cho̍k, chú-iàu í Nishida Tatsuo ûi tāi-piáu ê chi̍t-kóa ha̍k-chiá, jīn-ûi Ji̍t-gú ê gú-sī hām Bián-tiān-gú téng choa̍t-tāi-to-sò͘ Chōng-Bián gú (tû Karen-gú hām Bai-gú í-gōa, che nn̄g chióng gú-giân hun-pia̍t siū-tio̍h SVO ê Thài-gú kap Hàn-gú éng-hióng, mā piàn-sêng SVO gú-sī) sio-kāng, jî-chhiáⁿ Ji̍t-gú kò͘-iú-jī-lūi tiong iā ū hām Bián-tiān-gú í-ki̍p Tiong-kok lâm-pō͘ hong-giân chiap-kūn ê jī-lūi, sīm-chì tī im-ūn siōng iā ū bōe-chió sio-siâng ê só͘-chāi, in-chhú chú-tiuⁿ Ji̍t-gú èng-kai sio̍k-û Chōng-Bián gú-cho̍k. Chóng-sī, hoán-tùi ê lâng jīn-ûi, Ji̍t-pún kap Chōng-Bián bîn-cho̍k chi-kan lō͘-tô͘ hn̄g-hn̄g, tiong-kan koh ū Lâm-tó gú-hē kap Tungus bîn-cho̍k ê tōe-khu, in-chhú chit-ê koan-tiám bô tit--tio̍h tiōng-sī. Tān-sī koh ū ha̍k-chiá thê-chhut èng-tong í bîn-cho̍k î-bîn ê le̍k-sú lâi khòaⁿ-thāi chit-ê ká-soat. In kóng: sui-jiân hiān-chú-sî ê bîn-cho̍k hun-pò͘ khòaⁿ-khí-lâi Ji̍t-pún kap Chōng-Bián bîn-cho̍k chi-kan chin hn̄g, tān-sī tī Siong-Chiu sî-kî, chi̍t-kóa Chōng-Bián gú-cho̍k, lâm-chi kó͘-a-chiu-cho̍k (shimada) kap Lâm-tó gú-cho̍k hūn-ha̍p, pēng-chhiáⁿ tī Hàn-Chōng (Chiu) bîn-cho̍k kiông-tāi ê ap-le̍k hā hâng-hái pak-siōng he̍k-chiá lâm-hā keng-kè Tiâu-sián poàn-tó chìn-ji̍p Kiú-chiu-tó tēng-ku. Hit-tong-sî, Tungus-cho̍k (Altai gú-hē) iáu-bōe tī Bông-kó͘ ko-goân kap Pak-chi kó͘-a-chiu-cho̍k (taⁿ ê Chukotko kap Tiâu-sián-cho̍k pak-pō͘ ê goân-sí bîn-cho̍k) kèng-cheng, chit-chióng kóng-hoat iā put-chí-ū tō-lí.

Tû-liáu í-siōng 4 lūi koan-tiám í-gōa, koh ū ha̍k-chiá jīn-ûi Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē èng-tong sio̍k-û Lâm-tó gú-hē, Ji̍t-pún--Liû-kiû gú-hē hām Lâm-tó gú-hē tī kò͘-sû siōng ū sio-siâng ê só͘-chāi, soah kap Altai gú-hē lí-lūn kāng-khoán khoeh-chió tông-goân-sû ê chèng-kù.

Chòe-kūn ū lâng thê-chhut tī Altai gú-hē chi-hā kò͘-kiàn sin-gú-cho̍k (Hân-Ji̍t--Liû-kiû gú-cho̍k) pēng-chhiáⁿ chiong Tiâu-sián-gú, Liû-kiû-gú í-ki̍p Ji̍t-gú lóng kui-ji̍p chit-ê gú-cho̍k chi-lāi. Chit-ê koan-tiám bêng-hián sī tē 1 lūi kap tē 2 lūi ê hūn-ha̍p koan-tiám, tān-sī i iû-goân ài bīn-tùi 'tông-goân-sû būn-tôe'.

Chham-khó bûn-hiànSiu-kái

Ín-iōngSiu-kái

  1. "While 'Altaic' is repeated in encyclopedias and handbooks most specialists in these languages no longer believe that the three traditional supposed Altaic groups, Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic, are related." Lyle Campbell & Mauricio J. Mixco, A Glossary of Historical Linguistics (2007, University of Utah Press), pg. 7.
  2. "When cognates proved not to be valid, Altaic was abandoned, and the received view now is that Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic are unrelated." Johanna Nichols, Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time (1992, Chicago), pg. 4.
  3. "Careful examination indicates that the established families, Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic, form a linguistic area (called Altaic)...Sufficient criteria have not been given that would justify talking of a genetic relationship here." R.M.W. Dixon, The Rise and Fall of Languages (1997, Cambridge), pg. 32.
  4. "...[T]his selection of features does not provide good evidence for common descent" and "we can observe convergence rather than divergence between Turkic and Mongolic languages--a pattern than is easily explainable by borrowing and diffusion rather than common descent", Asya Pereltsvaig, Languages of the World, An Introduction (2012, Cambridge) has a good discussion of the Altaic hypothesis (pp. 211-216).
  5. Georg et al. 1999: 73–74
  6. Stefan Georg, Peter A. Michalove, Alexis Manaster Ramer, and Paul J. Sidwell (1999): "Telling general linguists about Altaic". Journal of Linguistics, volume 35, issue 1, pages 65–98.
  7. "Han-Tibetan, Altaic Languages "Close Relatives"". german.china.org.cn. 2020-02-15 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  8. "While 'Altaic' is repeated in encyclopedias and handbooks most specialists in these languages no longer believe that the three traditional supposed Altaic groups, Turkic, Mongolian and Tungusic, are related." Lyle Campbell & Mauricio J. Mixco, A Glossary of Historical Linguistics (2007, University of Utah Press), pg. 7.
  9. "Careful examination indicates that the established families, Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic, form a linguistic area (called Altaic)...Sufficient criteria have not been given that would justify talking of a genetic relationship here." R.M.W. Dixon, The Rise and Fall of Languages (1997, Cambridge), pg. 32.
  10. "When cognates proved not to be valid, Altaic was abandoned, and the received view now is that Turkic, Mongolian, and Tungusic are unrelated." Johanna Nichols, Linguistic Diversity in Space and Time (1992, Chicago), pg. 4.
  11. "...[T]his selection of features does not provide good evidence for common descent" and "we can observe convergence rather than divergence between Turkic and Mongolic languages--a pattern than is easily explainable by borrowing and diffusion rather than common descent", Asya Pereltsvaig, Languages of the World, An Introduction (2012, Cambridge) has a good discussion of the Altaic hypothesis (pp. 211-216).