"Ko͘-li̍p hē-thóng" pán-pún chi-kan bô-kāng--ê tē-hng

無編輯摘要
[[File:Diagram Systems.png|thumb|250px|Ko͘-li̍p, [[hong-pì hē-thóng|hong-pì]], kap [[khai-hòng hē-thóng|khai-hòng]] hē-thóng kau-ōaⁿ lêng-liōng kap chit-liōng ê te̍k-sèng.]]
 
'''Ko͘-li̍p hē-thóng''' (孤立系統)
* tī [[kó͘-tián le̍k-ha̍k]] tiong, kóng ê sī chi̍t ê bōe kap gōa-kài sán-seng [[la̍t|kau-hō͘ chok-iōng]] ê [[hē-thóng]]; hē-thóng ê [[ūn-tōng-liōng]] bōe cheng-ka mā bōe kiám-chió.
* tī [[jia̍t-le̍k-ha̍k]] tiong, kóng ê sī chi̍t ê oân-choân bōe kap gōa-kài kau-ōaⁿ [[lêng-liōng]] ia̍h [[chit-liōng]] ê hē-thóng. Jīm-hô lêng-liōng kap chit-liōng lóng bē-tàng chìn-jip ia̍h lī-khui chi̍t ê ko͘-li̍p hē-thóng, ka-nā ē-tàng tī hē-thóng lāi-pō͘ sóa-tāng.
 
{{Hē-thóng kho-ha̍k}}
[[Category:Jia̍t-le̍k-ha̍k]]
[[Lūi-pia̍t:Bu̍t-lí hē-thóng]]
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