"Kim" pán-pún chi-kan bô-kāng--ê tē-hng

無編輯摘要
{{infobox element
{{su-iàu hoan-e̍k}}
|name=n̂g-kim
{{Elementbox_header | number=79 | symbol=Au | name=Kim | left=[[platinum]] | right=[[mercury (element)|mercury]] | above=[[silver|Ag]] | below=[[roentgenium|Rg]] | color1=#ffc0c0 | color2=black }}
|number=79
{{Elementbox_series | [[transition metal]]s }}
|symbol=Au
{{Elementbox_groupperiodblock | group=11 | period=6 | block=d }}
|left=[[pe̍h-kim]]
{{Elementbox_appearance_img | Native gold nuggets| metallic yellow }}
|right=[[chúi-gîn|Ag]]
{{Elementbox_atomicmass_gpm | [[1 E-25 kg|196.966569]][[List of elements by atomic mass|(4)]] }}
|above=[[gîn]]
{{Elementbox_econfig | &#91;[[xenon|Xe]]&#93; 4f<sup>14</sup> 5d<sup>10</sup> 6s<sup>1</sup> }}
|below=[[roentgen-sò͘|Rg]]
{{Elementbox_epershell | 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1 }}
|series=chhian-î kim-sio̍k
{{Elementbox_section_physicalprop | color1=#ffc0c0 | color2=black }}
|series comment=
{{Elementbox_phase | [[solid]] }}
|group=11
{{Elementbox_density_gpcm3nrt | 19.3 }}
|period=6
{{Elementbox_densityliq_gpcm3mp | 17.31 }}
|block=d
{{Elementbox_meltingpoint | k=1337.33 | c=1064.18 | f=1947.52 }}
|series color=
{{Elementbox_boilingpoint | k=3129 | c=2856 | f=5173 }}
|appearance=kim-sio̍k-khoán n̂g-sek
{{Elementbox_heatfusion_kjpmol | 12.55 }}
|image name=Gold-crystals.jpg
{{Elementbox_heatvaporiz_kjpmol | 324 }}
|image name comment=
{{Elementbox_heatcapacity_jpmolkat25 | 25.418 }}
|image name 2=
{{Elementbox_vaporpressure_katpa | 1646 | 1814 | 2021 | 2281 | 2620 | 3078 | comment= }}
|image size 2=
{{Elementbox_section_atomicprop | color1=#ffc0c0 | color2=black }}
|image name 2 comment=
{{Elementbox_crystalstruct | cubic face centered }}
|atomic mass=196.966569
{{Elementbox_oxistates | '''3''', 1<br />([[amphoteric]] oxide) }}
|atomic mass ref=<ref name="IUPAC">{{cite web|url = http://www.ciaaw.org/atomic-weights.htm|title = Standard Atomic Weights 2013|publisher = [[Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights]]}}</ref>
{{Elementbox_electroneg_pauling | 2.54 }}
|atomic mass 2=5
{{Elementbox_ionizationenergies2 | 890.1 | 1980 }}
|atomic mass comment=
{{Elementbox_atomicradius_pm | [[1 E-10 m|135]] }}
|electron configuration=&#91;[[xenon|Xe]]&#93; 4f<sup>14</sup> 5d<sup>10</sup> 6s<sup>1</sup>
{{Elementbox_atomicradiuscalc_pm | [[1 E-10 m|174]] }}
|electrons per shell=2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1
{{Elementbox_covalentradius_pm | [[1 E-10 m|144]] }}
|color=
{{Elementbox_vanderwaalsrad_pm | [[1 E-10 m|166]] }}
|phase=solid
{{Elementbox_section_miscellaneous | color1=#ffc0c0 | color2=black }}
|phase comment=
{{Elementbox_magnetic | no data }}
|density gplstp=
{{Elementbox_eresist_ohmmat20 | 22.14 n}}
|density gpcm3nrt=19.30
{{Elementbox_thermalcond_wpmkat300k | 318 }}
|density gpcm3nrt 2=
{{Elementbox_thermalexpansion_umpmkat25 | 14.2 }}
|density gpcm3nrt 3=
{{Elementbox_speedofsound_rodmpsatrt | (hard-drawn)<br />2030 }}
|density gpcm3mp=17.31
{{Elementbox_youngsmodulus_gpa | 78 }}
|melting point K=1337.33
{{Elementbox_shearmodulus_gpa | 27 }}
|melting point C=1064.18
{{Elementbox_bulkmodulus_gpa | 220 }}
|melting point F=1947.52
{{Elementbox_poissonratio | 0.44 }}
|sublimation point K=
{{Elementbox_mohshardness | 2.5 }}
|sublimation point C=
{{Elementbox_vickershardness_mpa | 216 }}
|sublimation point F=
{{Elementbox_brinellhardness_mpa | 2450 }}
|boiling point K=3243
{{Elementbox_cas_number | 7440-57-5 }}
|boiling point C=2970
{{Elementbox_isotopes_begin | isotopesof=Au | color1=#ffc0c0 | color2=black }}
|boiling point F=5378
{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay | mn=195 | sym=Au
|triple point K=
| na=[[synthetic radioisotope|syn]] | hl=186.10 d
|triple point kPa=
| dm=[[electron capture|ε]] | de=0.227 | pn=195 | ps=[[platinum|Pt]] }}
|critical point K=
{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay2 | mn=196 | sym=Au
|critical point MPa=
| na=[[synthetic radioisotope|syn]] | hl=6.183 d
|heat fusion=12.55
| dm1=[[electron capture|ε]] | de1=1.506 | pn1=196 | ps1=[[platinum|Pt]]
|heat fusion 2=
| dm2=[[beta emission|β<sup>-</sup>]] | de2=0.686 | pn2=196 | ps2=[[mercury (element)|Hg]] }}
|heat vaporization=342
{{Elementbox_isotopes_stable | mn=197 | sym=Au | na=100% | n=118 }}
|heat capacity=25.418
{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay | mn=198 | sym=Au
|vapor pressure 1=1646
| na=[[synthetic radioisotope|syn]] | hl=2.69517 d
|vapor pressure 10=1814
| dm=[[beta emission|β<sup>-</sup>]] | de=1.372 | pn=198 | ps=[[mercury (element)|Hg]] }}
|vapor pressure 100=2021
{{Elementbox_isotopes_decay | mn=199 | sym=Au
|vapor pressure 1 k=2281
| na=[[synthetic radioisotope|syn]] | hl=3.169 d
|vapor pressure 10 k=2620
| dm=[[beta emission|β<sup>-</sup>]] | de=0.453 | pn=199 | ps=[[mercury (element)|Hg]] }}
|vapor pressure 100 k=3078
{{Elementbox_isotopes_end}}
|vapor pressure comment=
{{Elementbox_footer | color1=#ffc0c0 | color2=black}}
|crystal structure=face centered cubic
|oxidation states=[[Gold pentafluoride|5]], '''3''', 2, 1, [[Caesium auride|−1]], −2, −3
|oxidation states comment=(an [[Amphoterism|amphoteric]] oxide)
|electronegativity=2.54
|number of ionization energies=2
|ionization energy 1=890.1
|ionization energy 2=1980
|ionization energy 3=
|atomic radius=144
|atomic radius calculated=
|covalent radius=136±6
|Van der Waals radius=166
|magnetic ordering=[[Diamagnetism|diamagnetic]]
|magnetic ordering ref=<ref>{{cite book |url=http://web.archive.org/web/20110303222309/http://www-d0.fnal.gov/hardware/cal/lvps_info/engineering/elementmagn.pdf|chapter=Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds| editor = Lide, D. R. | title = CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics | edition = 86th | location = Boca Raton (FL) | publisher = CRC Press | year = 2005 | isbn = 0-8493-0486-5 }}
</ref>
|electrical resistivity=
|electrical resistivity unit prefix=n
|electrical resistivity at 0=
|electrical resistivity at 20=22.14
|thermal conductivity=318
|thermal conductivity 2=
|thermal diffusivity=
|thermal expansion=
|thermal expansion at 25=14.2
|speed of sound=
|speed of sound rod at 20=
|speed of sound rod at r.t.=2030
|tensile strength=120
|Young's modulus=79
|Shear modulus=27
|Bulk modulus=180
|Bulk modulus ref=<ref>{{cite book|author=Kelly, P.F. |title=Properties of Materials|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=gSncBQAAQBAJ&pg=PT355|date=2015|publisher=CRC Press|isbn=978-1-4822-0624-1|page=355}}</ref>
|Poisson ratio=0.4
|Mohs hardness=2.5
|Vickers hardness=188–216
|Brinell hardness=188–245
|Brinell hardness comment=
|CAS number=7440-57-5
|isotopes={{infobox element/isotopes decay | mn=195 | sym=Au
| na=[[synthetic radioisotope|syn]] | hl=186.10&nbsp;d
| dm=[[electron capture|ε]] | de=0.227 | link1=platinum-195 | pn=195 | ps=Pt}}
{{infobox element/isotopes decay2 | mn=196 | sym=Au
| na=syn | hl=6.183&nbsp;d
| dm1=ε | de1=1.506 | link1=platinum-196 | pn1=196 | ps1=Pt
| dm2=[[beta emission|β<sup>−</sup>]] | de2=0.686 | link2=mercury-196 | pn2=196 | ps2=Hg }}
{{infobox element/isotopes decay | mn=197 | sym=Au | na=100% | hl=– | dm=([[alpha decay|α]]) | de=0.9545 | link1=iridium-193 | pn=193 | ps=Ir }}
{{infobox element/isotopes decay | mn=198 | sym=Au
| na=syn | hl=2.69517&nbsp;d
| dm=β<sup>−</sup> | de=1.372 | link1=mercury-198 | pn=198 | ps=Hg}}
{{infobox element/isotopes decay | mn=199 | sym=Au
| na=syn | hl=3.169&nbsp;d
| dm=β<sup>−</sup> | de=0.453 | link1=mercury-199 | pn=199 | ps=Hg}}
|isotopes comment=Lí-lūn-siōng ū khó-lêng m̄-koh si̍t-chè iá bô hoat-hiān
|naming=latin hō-miâ {{lang|lat|''aurum''}}, ì-sù sī chhut-ji̍t ê kng
|discovered by=[[Tiong-tang]]
|discovery date=[[chêng 6000 nî]] chìn-chêng
}}
 
'''Au''' ([[Latin-gí]]: ''aurum'') ia̍h '''kim''' sī [[chiu-kî-pió]] lāi-té ê 1 chióng [[hoà-ha̍k goân-sò͘]], [[goân-chú-hoan]] 79. Au ham toā-hūn ê hoà-ha̍k-mi̍h bô chok-iōng, Kan-taⁿ [[Cl (goân-sò͘)|Cl]], [[F (goân-sò͘)|F]], [[ông-chúi]] (aqua regia), ham [[chheng-hoà-bu̍t]] (cyanide) ē kap Au khí hoán-èng; lēng-goā, tī [[chúi-gîn]] (mercury)--nih, Au mā ē iûⁿ--khì. [[Siau-sng]] (nitric acid) ē kā Au í-goā ê kim-sio̍k lóng iûⁿ--khì, tiāⁿ hông the̍h lâi chhì-giām ū Au ia̍h bô.