"Sek-khia-mô͘-nî" pán-pún chi-kan bô-kāng--ê tē-hng

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<!--{{refn|group=note|name="birthplace"|According to the Buddhist tradition, following the ''Nidanakatha'' {{Harvard citation|Fausböll|Davids|Davids|1878|p={{page needed|date=March 2021}}}}, the introductory to the [[Jataka tales]], the stories of the former lives of the Buddha, Gautama was born in [[Lumbini]], now in modern Nepal, but then part of the territory of the Shakya-clan.<ref name=WHC>{{cite web |url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/666 |title=Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha |website=World Heritage Convention |publisher=UNESCO |access-date=26 May 2011}}</ref><ref name="Victoria and Albert Museum">{{cite web |url=http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/the-astamahapratiharya-buddhist-pilgrimage-sites/ |title=The Astamahapratiharya: Buddhist pilgrimage sites |publisher=Victoria and Albert Museum |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121031180234/http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/the-astamahapratiharya-buddhist-pilgrimage-sites/ |archive-date=31 October 2012 |access-date=25 December 2012}}</ref> In the mid-3rd century BCE the Emperor [[Ashoka]] determined that Lumbini was Gautama's birthplace and thus installed a pillar there with the inscription: "...this is where the Buddha, sage of the Śākyas (''Śākyamuni''), was born."{{Harvard citation|Gethin|1998|p=19}}<br /><br />
Based on stone inscriptions, there is also speculation that Lumbei, Kapileswar village, [[Odisha]], at the east coast of India, was the site of ancient Lumbini.({{harvnb|Mahāpātra|1977}}; {{harvnb|Mohāpātra|2000|p=114}}; {{harvnb|Tripathy|2014}} Hartmann discusses the hypothesis and states, "The inscription has generally been considered spurious (...)"{{harvnb|Hartmann|1991|pp=38–39}} He quotes Sircar: "There can hardly be any doubt that the people responsible for the Kapilesvara inscription copied it from the said facsimile not much earlier than 1928."<br /><br />
Kapilavastu was the place where he grew up:{{harvnb|Keown|Prebish|2013|p=436}}{{refn|group=note|Some sources mention Kapilavastu as the birthplace of the Buddha. Gethin states: "The earliest Buddhist sources state that the future Buddha was born Siddhārtha Gautama (Pali Siddhattha Gotama), the son of a local chieftain—a ''rājan''—in Kapilavastu (Pali Kapilavatthu) what is now Nepal."{{harvnb|Gethin|1998|p=14}} Gethin does not give references for this statement.}}-->
* {{Harvard citation text|Warder|2000|p=45}}: "The Buddha [...] was born in the Sakya Republic, which was the city state of Kapilavastu, a very small state just inside the modern state boundary of Nepal against the Northern Indian frontier.
* {{Harvard citation text|Walshe|1995|p=20}}: "He belonged to the Sakya clan dwelling on the edge of the Himalayas, his actual birthplace being a few kilometres north of the present-day Northern Indian border, in Nepal. His father was, in fact, an elected chief of the clan rather than the king he was later made out to be, though his title was ''raja''—a term which only partly corresponds to our word 'king'. Some of the states of North India at that time were kingdoms and others republics, and the Sakyan republic was subject to the powerful king of neighbouring Kosala, which lay to the south".