"Sek-khia-mô͘-nî" pán-pún chi-kan bô-kāng--ê tē-hng

無編輯摘要
無編輯摘要
 
I chhut-sì kap koè-sin ê ji̍t-chí bô chin khak-tēng, tāi-iok sī chêng 563 nî kap chêng 483 nî, mā ū lâng jîn-ûi i sī 411 nî chó-iū koè-sin.
 
==Tsù-sik==
{{Reflist|group=note|40em|refs=
<!-- B -->
<!-- "birthplace" -->
<!--{{refn|group=note|name="birthplace"|According to the Buddhist tradition, following the ''Nidanakatha'' {{Harvard citation|Fausböll|Davids|Davids|1878|p={{page needed|date=March 2021}}}}, the introductory to the [[Jataka tales]], the stories of the former lives of the Buddha, Gautama was born in [[Lumbini]], now in modern Nepal, but then part of the territory of the Shakya-clan.<ref name=WHC>{{cite web |url=https://whc.unesco.org/en/list/666 |title=Lumbini, the Birthplace of the Lord Buddha |website=World Heritage Convention |publisher=UNESCO |access-date=26 May 2011}}</ref><ref name="Victoria and Albert Museum">{{cite web |url=http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/the-astamahapratiharya-buddhist-pilgrimage-sites/ |title=The Astamahapratiharya: Buddhist pilgrimage sites |publisher=Victoria and Albert Museum |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121031180234/http://www.vam.ac.uk/content/articles/t/the-astamahapratiharya-buddhist-pilgrimage-sites/ |archive-date=31 October 2012 |access-date=25 December 2012}}</ref> In the mid-3rd century BCE the Emperor [[Ashoka]] determined that Lumbini was Gautama's birthplace and thus installed a pillar there with the inscription: "...this is where the Buddha, sage of the Śākyas (''Śākyamuni''), was born."{{Harvard citation|Gethin|1998|p=19}}<br /><br />
Based on stone inscriptions, there is also speculation that Lumbei, Kapileswar village, [[Odisha]], at the east coast of India, was the site of ancient Lumbini.({{harvnb|Mahāpātra|1977}}; {{harvnb|Mohāpātra|2000|p=114}}; {{harvnb|Tripathy|2014}} Hartmann discusses the hypothesis and states, "The inscription has generally been considered spurious (...)"{{harvnb|Hartmann|1991|pp=38–39}} He quotes Sircar: "There can hardly be any doubt that the people responsible for the Kapilesvara inscription copied it from the said facsimile not much earlier than 1928."<br /><br />
Kapilavastu was the place where he grew up:{{harvnb|Keown|Prebish|2013|p=436}}{{refn|group=note|Some sources mention Kapilavastu as the birthplace of the Buddha. Gethin states: "The earliest Buddhist sources state that the future Buddha was born Siddhārtha Gautama (Pali Siddhattha Gotama), the son of a local chieftain—a ''rājan''—in Kapilavastu (Pali Kapilavatthu) what is now Nepal."{{harvnb|Gethin|1998|p=14}} Gethin does not give references for this statement.}}-
* {{Harvard citation text|Warder|2000|p=45}}: "The Buddha [...] was born in the Sakya Republic, which was the city state of Kapilavastu, a very small state just inside the modern state boundary of Nepal against the Northern Indian frontier.
* {{Harvard citation text|Walshe|1995|p=20}}: "He belonged to the Sakya clan dwelling on the edge of the Himalayas, his actual birthplace being a few kilometres north of the present-day Northern Indian border, in Nepal. His father was, in fact, an elected chief of the clan rather than the king he was later made out to be, though his title was ''raja''—a term which only partly corresponds to our word 'king'. Some of the states of North India at that time were kingdoms and others republics, and the Sakyan republic was subject to the powerful king of neighbouring Kosala, which lay to the south".
* The exact location of ancient Kapilavastu is unknown.{{Harvard citation|Keown|Prebish|2013|p=436}} It may have been either [[Piprahwa]] in [[Uttar Pradesh]], northern India ({{harvnb|Nakamura |1980|p=18}}; {{harvnb|Srivastava|1979|pp=61–74}}; {{harvnb|Srivastava|1980|p=108}}), or [[Tilaurakot]] {{Harvard citation|Tuladhar|2002|pp=1–7}}, present-day Nepal ({{harvnb|Huntington|1986}}, {{harvnb|Keown|Prebish|2013|p=436}}). The two cities are located only {{convert|15|mi|km|order=flip|abbr=off}} from each other {{Harvard citation|Huntington|1986}}.
See also [[#Birth and early life|Conception and birth]] and [[#Sources|Birthplace Sources]]}}-->
<!-- "Bodhi" -->
<!--{{refn|group=note|name="Bodhi"|The translation of "bodhi" and "Buddha" has shifted over time. While translated as "enlightenment" and "the enlightened one" since the 19th century, following [[Max Muller]] {{Harvard citation|Cohen|2006|p. 9}}, the preferred translation has shifted to "awakened" and "awakened one" ({{harvnb|Bodhi|2020}}; {{harvnb|Abrahams|2021}}:
* {{Harvard citation text|Gimello|2003|p=entry "Bodhi (awakening"}}: "The Sanskrit and Pāli word bodhi derives from the Indic root [.radical] budh (to awaken, to know) [...] Those who are attentive to the more literal meaning of the Indic original tend to translate bodhi into English as "awakening," and this is to be recommended. However, it has long been conventional to translate it as "enlightenment," despite the risks of multiple misrepresentation attendant upon the use of so heavily freighted an English word."
* {{Harvard citation text|Norman|1997|p=29}}: "From the fourth jhana he gained bodhi. It is not at all clear what gaining bodhi means. We are accustomed to the translation "enlightenment" for bodhi, but this is misleading for two reasons. First, it can be confused with the use of the word to describe the development in European thought and culture in the eighteenth century, and second, it suggests that light is being shed on something, whereas there is no hint of the meaning "light" in the root budh- which underlies the word bodhi. The root means "to wake up, to be awake, to be awakened", and a buddha is someone who has been awakened. Besides the ordinary sense of being awakened by something, e.g. a noise, it can also mean "awakened to something". The desire to get the idea of "awakened" in English translations of buddha explains the rather peculiar Victorian quasi-poetical translation "the wake" which we sometimes find."
* Bikkhu Bodhi objects to this shift: "The classical Pali text on grammar, Saddanīti, assigns to this root the meanings of “knowing (or understanding),” “blossoming,” and “waking up,” in that order of importance. The Pali-Sanskrit noun buddhi, which designates the intellect or faculty of cognition, is derived from budh, yet entails no sense of “awakening.” Further, when we look at the ordinary use of verbs based on budh in the Pali suttas, we can see that these verbs mean “to know, to understand, to recognize.” My paper cites several passages where rendering the verb as “awakens” would stretch the English word beyond its ordinary limits. In those contexts, “knows,” “understands,” “recognizes,” or “realizes” would fit much better. The verbs derived from budh that do mean “awaken” are generally preceded by a prefix, but they are not used to refer to the Buddha’s attainment of bodhi." ({{harvnb|Bodhi|2020}}; {{harvnb|Abrahams|2021}})
* {{Harvard citation text|Buddhadasa|2017|p=5}} gives several translations, including "the knowing one": "This is how we understand "Buddha" in Thailand, as the Awakened One, the Knowing One, and the Blossomed One."}}-->
<!-- "Buddha-statue" -->
<!--{{refn|group="note"|name="Buddha-statue"|Buddha is seated cross-legged in the [[lotus position]]. In the centre of the base relief is a wheel symbolizing the ''[[dharmachakra]]'', the Wheel of Buddhist law, with [[Attitude (heraldry)#Couchant|couchant]] deer on either side symbolizing the deer park in which the sermon was preached. The fingers of his hands form the [[Mudra#Dharmachakra Pravartana Mudrā|teaching pose]].
* {{Harvard citation text|Sahni|1914|pp=70–71, chapter B (b) 181}}: "Image (ht 5' 3'' up to the top of the halo; width at base 2' 7'') of Gautama Buddha seated cross-legged, preaching the first sermon at Sarnath, on a thick cushion supported on a seat with moulded legs."
* {{Harvard citation text|Eck|1982|p=63}}: In the most famous of these images in the Sarnath museum, the Buddha sits cross-legged, his limbs in the perfect proportions prescribed by the iconometry of the day, his hands in a teaching pose, his eyes downcast, half-shut in meditation, his head backed by a beautifully ornamented circular nimbus."
* {{Harvard citation text|Mani|2012|pp=66–67}}: "The seated Buddha, B(b) 181 showing Buddha cross-legged in the attitude of preaching, is one of the most exquisite creations of Gupta art. The halo is carved with a pair of celestial figures and conventionalized floral scroll-work."}}-->
<!-- "Buswell_Lopez_renunciation" -->
<!--* {{refn|group=note|name="Buswell_Lopez_renunciation"|{{harvnb|Buswell Jr.|Lopez Jr.|2014|p=entry "Sakyamuni"}} refer to the [https://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/mn/mn.026.than.html Ariyapariyesana Sutta], noting: "Buddha’s quest for enlightenment occurs in the ARIYAPARIYESANĀSUTTA. It is noteworthy that many of the most familiar events in the Buddha’s life are absent in some of the early accounts."<br>The Ariyapariyesana Sutta says: "So, at a later time, while still young, a black-haired young man endowed with the blessings of youth in the first stage of life — and while my parents, unwilling, were crying with tears streaming down their faces — I shaved off my hair & beard, put on the ochre robe and went forth from the home life into homelessness.}}-->
<!-- D -->
<!-- "deathplace" -->
<!--{{refn|group="note"|name="deathplace"|According to [[Mahaparinibbana Sutta]] (see [http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/dn/dn.16.1-6.vaji.html Äccess to insight," Maha-parinibbana Sutta]), Gautama died in Kushinagar, which is located in present-day [[Uttar Pradesh]], India.}}-->
<!-- N -->
<!-- "name_gautama" -->
<!--{{refn|group=note|name="name_gautama"|{{Harvard citation text|Buswell Jr.|Lopez Jr.|2014|p=316}}, "Gautama": "Gautama. (P.) Gotama; The family name of the historical Buddha, also known as ŚĀKYAMUNI Buddha. ... In Pāli literature, he is more commonly referred to as Gotama Buddha; in Mahāyāna texts, Śākyamuni Buddha is more common."}}-->
<!--"sakkamuni" -->
<!--{{refn|group=note|name="sakkamuni"|{{Harvard citation text|Buswell Jr.|Lopez Jr.|2014|p=741}} "Śākyamuni": "Śākyamuni. (P. Sakkamuni; ... one of the most common epithets of GAUTAMA Buddha, especially in the MAHĀYĀNA traditions, where the name ŚĀKYAMUNI is used to distinguish the historical buddha from the myriad other buddhas who appear in the SŪTRAs."}}-->
<!-- "name_siddharta" -->
<!--{{refn|group="note"|name="name_siddharta"|{{IPAc-en|s|ɪ|ˈ|d|ɑr|t|ə|,_|-|θ|ə}}; {{IPA-sa|sɪdːʱaːrtʰɐ ɡɐʊtɐmɐ|lang}} Gautama namely Gotama in Pali. {{Harvard citation text|Buswell Jr.|Lopez Jr.|2014|p=817}} "Siddhārtha": "Siddhārtha. (P. Siddhattha; T. Don grub; C. Xidaduo; J. Shiddatta/Shittatta; K. Siltalta ). In Sanskrit, "He Who Achieves His Goal," the personal name of GAUTAMA Buddha, also known as ŚĀKYAMUNI. In some accounts of the life of the Buddha, after his royal birth as the son of King ŚUDDHODANA, the BODHISATTVA was given this name and is referred to by that name during his life as a prince and his practice of asceticism. ... After his achievement of buddhahood, Siddhārtha is instead known as Gautama, Śākyamuni, or simply the TATHĀGATA."}}-->
<!-- "name_the_buddha" -->
<!--{{refn|group=note|name="name_the_buddha"|The Buddha:
* {{Harvard citation text|Keown|2003|p=42}} chapter"Buddha (Skt; Pali)": "This is not a personal name but an epithet of those who have achieved enlightenment (*bodhi), the goal of the Buddhist religious life. Buddha comes from the *Sanskrit root 'budh', meaning to awaken, and the Buddhas are those who have awakened to the true nature of things as taught in the *Four Noble Truths. ... It is generally believed that there can never be more than one Buddha in any particular era, and the 'historical Buddha' of the present era was *Siddhartha Gautama. Numerous ahistorical Buddhas make an appearance in Mahayana literature."
* {{OED|2013|p=chapter "Buddha, n."}}: "Also with ''the'': (a title for) Siddhārtha Gautama, or Śākyamuni, a spiritual teacher from South Asia on whose teachings Buddhism is based, and who is believed to have been born in what is now Nepal and flourished in what is now Bihar, north-eastern India, during the 5th cent. b.c. Also: (a title given to) any Buddhist teacher regarded as having attained full awakening or enlightenment."}}-->
<!-- S -->
<!-- "savior" -->
<!--{{refn|group=note|name="savior"|{{Harvard citation text|de Bary|1972|p=xvii }}: "In this respect, then, Buddha could accurately be viewed as a kind of saviour, and when so conceived he has had for many the attributes of divinity--saving power, omniscience in regard to all essential truth, an all-encompassing compassion, timeless existence, immutable being, unending bliss, etc."}}-->
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==Tsù-kái==
7,301

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