Gí-giân hêng-siau (language marketing) sī kā gí-giân tòng-chò "sán-phín", thàu-koè hêng-siau-chhek-lio̍k lâi "thui-siau" ê oa̍h-tāng. Gí-giân-hêng-siau goân-chū siā-hoē-hêng-siau (social marketing) ê khài-liām. Thōng chia̍p iōng ê hêng-siau chhiú-hoat sī: sán-phín (product), kè-keh (price), thong-lō͘ (place) kah thui-siau (promotion), chit 4 hāng, it-poaⁿ kā kiò-chò "hêng-siau ê 4 P". [1]

Thong-chá kā hêng-siau koan-liām èng-iōng tī gí-giân kui-ōe ê lâng sī Jackson (1988) ê sek-sū lūn-bûn "Ūn-iōng hêng-siau bô͘-sek chìn-hêng gí-giân kui-ōe" (Language Planning Using a Marketing Model). I jīn-ûi ē-tàng hō͘ gí-giân kui-ōe chham-khó ê hêng-siau koan-liām ū (Jackson 1988:2-3): 1) kā gí-giân tòng-chò sī gí-giân kui-ōe khah khoah ê sán-phín (generic product); 2) í kò͘-kheh ûi-chú ê su-khó; 3) kui-ōe ê sî-chūn ài khó-lū chi̍t-kòa bô-hoat-tō͘ khòng-chè ê in-sò͘ (uncontrollable factors); 4) hêng-siau cho͘-ha̍p (marketing mix) sī ē-tàng khòng-chè ê in-sò͘, pau-koah 4 ê P: sán-phín, thong-lō͘, kè-keh, thui-siau; 5) hêng-siau cho͘-ha̍p e khài-liām tat-tit khǹg ji̍p-khì gí-giân kui-ōe ê kè-kò tang-tiong.

Gí-giân-hêng-siau sī báng-kiù gí-giân liû-si̍t ê tiōng-iàu koan-liām. Baker & Jones (1998) ê Siang-gí hiān-siōng kah siang-gí kàu-iok pek-kho-chôan-su tio̍h tan-to̍k chiōng gí-giân-hêng-siau liat-chò chi̍t ê chú-tê kài-siāu, in ū liat-chhut gí-giân hêng-siau ê 10 ê kai-tōaⁿ, jû-hā:[2]

  1. tēng-gī sán-phín;
  2. tiāu-chā kò͘-kheh ê su-kiû;
  3. tēng-gī chhī-tiûⁿ;
  4. hō͘ sán-phín ê siâⁿ-lâng;
  5. thui-tián sán-phín;
  6. ū-chhek kah hôe-èng hóan-soan-thôan;
  7. sán-phín ê phòe-siau;
  8. kè-keh kah siu-ek;
  9. sán-phín kah hêng-siau chhek-liok ê phêng-ko͘;
  10. tiāu-chéng hêng-siau chhek-liok kah chi̍t-hêng tn̂g-kî ê hêng-siau kè-ōe.

Gí-giân hêng-siau ê lēSiu-kái

Ū lú-lâi-lú-chē ê jio̍k-sè gí-giân thui-tián chhái-iōng gí-giân-hêng-siau ê koan-liām. Phí-jû-kóng Niú-se-lân ê Maori chok, Hawaii ê gôan-chū-bîn, Se-pan-gâ ê Catalan kah Basque lóng ū lī-iōng gí-giân-hêng-siau ê hong-ho̍at ho̍k-heng bó-gí [2] . Maori gí-giân ê hêng-siau tiōng-tiám khǹg tī thê-seng gí-giân hêng-siōng, kiàn-li̍p gí-giân tiong-sêng-kám kah kó·-lē gí-giân sú-iōng (Nicholson 1997). Maori úi-gôan-hōe bat iōng "Maori-nî" thui-tián Maori-gí, ū 3 ê bo̍k-phiau: 1) kó·-lē Maori lâng tī ji̍t-siông seng-o̍ah tiong ha̍k-si̍p kah sú-inog7 Maori gí; 2) o-ló Maori tī Niú-se-lân le̍k-sú kah hiān-tāi siā-hōe ê tē-ūi; 3) hō· Niú-se-lân siā-hōe tāi-chiòng tùi Maori sán-seng hó-kám. Hawaii mā tī siā-khu thui-tián bó-gí ê sú-iōng (Warner 1999). Ūi-tio̍h beh piah-bián chèng-kui kàu-io̍k ê hān-chè, chhòng-chò bó-gí tī siā-khu sú-iōng ê ki-hōe, chit ê kè-ōe tio̍h sú-iōng o̍ah-tang ûi-chú ê hong-hoat ha̍k-si̍p bó-gí, thàu-kòe phah-lúi-kiû, phah-pâi-kiû ê ūn-tōng, sú-iōng bó-gí. Catalan ê "gí-giân phó·-ki̍p ūn-tōng" thàu-kòe phiau-gí, pò-khan ê bûn-chiuⁿ, hái-pò kah tiān-sī, tiān-tâi hòng-sàng ê hong-sek lâi thê-seng gí-giân ì-sek, kó·-lē sú-iōng Catalan ê gí-giân, hō· lâng tùi bó-gí sán-seng chiàⁿ-bīn, chek-kip ê thài-tō·.Tâi-ôan Lâm-siā thui-kóng ê "Tâi-ôan bó-gí-ji̍t" mā ē-tàng khòaⁿ-chò sī gí-giân-hêng-siau ê lē. Tâi-ôan bô-gí-ji̍t chū 2006 nî khai-sí í-keng chiâⁿ-chò Kàu-iok-pō· thui-tián ê sū-hāng.

Gí-giân hêng-siau ê hong-hoatSiu-kái

Gí-giân-hêng-siau ê hong-hoat ē-tàng hun-chò chēng-thài kah tōng-thāi chit 2 chióng hong-hoat. Chit 2 chióng ē-tàng phòe-ha̍p chìn-hêng, m̄-sī hō͘-siōng pâi-thek ê o̍ah-tāng.

Chēng-thāi ê hong-hoat kiông-tiāu sìn-sip ê thôan-sàng, tio̍h-sī kóng ài kái-piàn kò-jîn ê thāi-tō· chiah ē-tàng kái-piān i ê hêng-ûi (Tiuⁿ Chàu-kiû et. al. 1999:88). Soeh-hok sī chēng-thāi o̍ah-tāng thòng chú-iàu ê khang-khòe, ē-tàng thàu-khòe ū éng-hióng-le̍k ê lâng (ka-tiúⁿ, hāu-tiúⁿ, kàu-su, ì-kiàn léng-siù téng lâng), ūn-iōng thôan-pò mûi-thé (ián-káng, sió-chhiú-chheh, gián-sip, chō-tâm, keng-giām hun-hióng, bûn-chiuⁿ, bīn-tùi-bīn ê kau-thong) éng-hióng lán ê kò·-kheh (jî-tông, ka-tiúⁿ, kàu-su). Soeh-hok ê tiōng-tiám ē-tàng khǹg tī "bó-gí sī pó-kùi ê chu-gôan", ho·-iok ka-têng tī chhù-nih kóng bó-gí. Cummings & Swain (1986) só· theh-chhut ê "Siang-gí tio̍h-sī hok-khì ” ê gôan-chek ta̍t-ti̍t thui-kóng. Chit ê gôan-chek ê iōng-ì sī beh hō· "ha̍k-seng liáu-kái siang-gí ūi-sím-mi̍h kah án-chóaⁿ tùi in ū hó-chhù", kóng khah kán-tan leh, chiū-sī ài hiòng ha̍k-seng, ka-tiúⁿ kah kàu-su "tōa-tōa ē soan-thôan siang-gí ê iu-tiám" (Cummings & Swain 1986:109). Tōng-thāi o̍ah-tang sī í o̍ah-tāng-ūi-chú ê chhek-liok. Chit ê chhek-liok tiōng-sī hêng-ûi ê kái-piàn, ài kái-piàn tùi-siòng ê hêng-ûi liáu-āu, chiah ē-tàng kái-piàn in ê thāi-tō·, só·-í chú-tiuⁿ ài thàu-kòe sī-hōan (model), kâng-pòe ê éng-hióng, chū-ngó·-koan ê kài-pián, ah-sī thàu-kòe hêng-ûi chióng-lē ê hong-hoat lâi kái-piàn hêng-ûi bô·-sek (Tiuⁿ Chàu-kiû et. al. 1999:88). Chìn-hêng tōng-thāi o̍ah-tāng ê hong-sek ū chin chē. Kah gí-giân siong-koan ê kháu-gí o̍ah-tāng, chhin-chhiūⁿ chhiùⁿ-koa, kóng-kò·-sū, ián-hì, ioh-bî-chhai, tak-chhùi-kó·, lóng ē-tàng chiâⁿ-chò o̍ah-tāng ê chiat-bo̍k. Lēng-gōa mā ē-tàng sek-kè chi̍t-kòa iōng bó-gí chìn-hêng tak-ke ē-tàng chò-hóe sńg ê o̍ah-tāng, phí-jû-kóng "kòe ngó· koan" ê iû-hì. Siā-khu Bó-gí Chu-gôan-tiong-sim chit ê bāng-chām ū thê-kiong chi̍t-koá-á oa̍h-tāng sek-kè ê lē thang-hó chham-khó.

Chham-khó chu-liāuSiu-kái

  1. Tiuⁿ Ha̍k-khiam, Chiong Chhiu-mōe, Siā Chhiong-ūn. 2005. "Thê-seng bó-gí ha̍k-si̍p tōng-ki". 2005 nî Kok-chè ha̍k-su̍t-gián-thó-hōe: Gí-bûn ha̍k-si̍p-chiá ê gián-kiù kah hun-sek. Lâm-tâi Kho-ki Tāi-ha̍k. 2005/122-3.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Baker, C. & Jones, S. P. 1998. Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education. Multilingual Matters.
  • Siā-khu Bó-gí Chu-gôan-tiong-sim
  • Tiuⁿ Chàu-kiû, So͘ Kok-an, Tân Kím-hàn. 1999. O̍ah-tāng thêng-sū: Kè-ōe, chip-hêng kah pêng-kàm. Hiong-káng Siâⁿ-chhī Tāi-ha̍k Chhut-pán-siā.
  • Cummings, J.& Swain, M.1986. Bilingualism in Education. Longman.
  • Hoffmann, C. 1991. An Introduction to Bilingualism. Longman.
  • Nicholson, R. 1997. “Marketing the Maori Language.” in Joh Reyhner (ed.), Teaching Indigenou Languages. Northern Arizona University. 206-213.
  • Warner, S. N. 1999. “Hawaiian Language Regenesis: Planning for Intergenerational Use of Hawaiian Beyond the School. T. Huebner and K. A. Davis (eds.) Sociopolitical Perspectives on Language Policy and Planning in the USA. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 313-332.