Java (thêng-sek gí-giân)

Java sī 1 chióng tiān-náu ê thêng-sek gí-giân. I ū khòa pêng-tâi (跨平臺), bu̍t-kiāⁿ tō-hiòng (物件導向) kap hoàn-hêng pian-thêng (泛型編程) ê te̍k-sèng. 1995 nî, iû James Gosling khai-hoat.

tóng-àn:Java programming language logo.svg
Pian-têng hoān-hêng Multi-paradigm: generic, object-oriented (class-based), functional, imperative, reflective, concurrent
Nńg-thé siat-kè James Gosling
Têng-sek-goân Sun Microsystems
Siú-chhù hoat-hêng 1995 nî 5 goe̍h 23 ji̍t;​ 27 nî í-chêng​ (1995-05-23) [1]
Java SE 19[2] 喺維基數據度改 / 2022 nîKáu-goe̍h nî;​ í-chêng​ (2022 nîKáu-goe̍h)
Lūi-hêng hē-thóng Static, strong, safe, nominative, manifest
Bûn-kiāⁿ khok-tián-miâ .java, .class, .jar, .jmod
Khé-hoat gí-giân
CLU,[3] Simula67,[3] Lisp,[3] Smalltalk,[3] Ada 83, C++,[4] C#,[5] Eiffel,[6] Mesa,[7] Modula-3,[8] Oberon,[9] Objective-C,[10] UCSD Pascal,[11][12] Object Pascal[13]
Éng-hióng gí-giân
Ada 2005, BeanShell, C#, Chapel,[14] Clojure, ECMAScript, Fantom, Gambas,[15] Groovy, Hack,[16] Haxe, J#, Kotlin, PHP, Python, Scala, Seed7, Vala, JavaScript, JS++

Ē-té sī sái Java siá ê „Hello World“ ê goân-sú-bé:

 public class Hello {
     public static void main(String[] args) {
         System.out.println("Hello, World!"); 


  1. Binstock, Andrew (May 20, 2015). "Java's 20 Years of Innovation". Forbes. goân-loē-iông tī March 14, 2016 hőng khó͘-pih. March 18, 2016 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |df= ignored (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 Barbara Liskov with John Guttag (2000). Program Development in Java - Abstraction, Specification, and Object-Oriented Design. USA, Addison Wesley. ISBN 9780201657685. 
  4. Chaudhary, Harry H. (2014-07-28). "Cracking The Java Programming Interview :: 2000+ Java Interview Que/Ans". 2016-05-29 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  5. Java 5.0 added several new language features (the enhanced for loop, autoboxing, varargs and annotations), after they were introduced in the similar (and competing) C# language. [1] Archived March 19, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. [2] Archived January 7, 2006, at the Wayback Machine.
  6. Gosling, James; McGilton, Henry (May 1996). "The Java Language Environment". goân-loē-iông tī May 6, 2014 hőng khó͘-pih. May 6, 2014 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |df= ignored (help)
  7. Gosling, James; Joy, Bill; Steele, Guy; Bracha, Gilad. "The Java Language Specification, 2nd Edition". goân-loē-iông tī August 5, 2011 hőng khó͘-pih. February 8, 2008 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |df= ignored (help)
  8. "The A-Z of Programming Languages: Modula-3". goân-loē-iông tī January 5, 2009 hőng khó͘-pih. 2010-06-09 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |df= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  9. Niklaus Wirth stated on a number of public occasions, e.g. in a lecture at the Polytechnic Museum, Moscow in September 2005 (several independent first-hand accounts in Russian exist, e.g. one with an audio recording: Filippova, Elena (September 22, 2005). "Niklaus Wirth's lecture at the Polytechnic Museum in Moscow". goân-loē-iông tī December 1, 2020 hőng khó͘-pih. November 20, 2011 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)), that the Sun Java design team licensed the Oberon compiler sources a number of years prior to the release of Java and examined it: a (relative) compactness, type safety, garbage collection, no multiple inheritance for classes – all these key overall design features are shared by Java and Oberon.
  10. Patrick Naughton cites Objective-C as a strong influence on the design of the Java programming language, stating that notable direct derivatives include Java interfaces (derived from Objective-C's protocol) and primitive wrapper classes. [3] Archived July 13, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.
  11. TechMetrix Research (1999). "History of Java" (PDF). Java Application Servers Report. goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī December 29, 2010 hőng khó͘-pih. The project went ahead under the name green and the language was based on an old model of UCSD Pascal, which makes it possible to generate interpretive code.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |df= ignored (help)
  12. "A Conversation with James Gosling – ACM Queue". August 31, 2004. goân-loē-iông tī July 16, 2015 hőng khó͘-pih. 2010-06-09 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |df= ignored (help)
  13. In the summer of 1996, Sun was designing the precursor to what is now the event model of the AWT and the JavaBeans component architecture. Borland contributed greatly to this process. We looked very carefully at Delphi Object Pascal and built a working prototype of bound method references in order to understand their interaction with the Java programming language and its APIs.White Paper About Microsoft's Delegates
  14. "Chapel spec (Acknowledgements)" (PDF). Cray Inc. 2015-10-01. goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī February 5, 2016 hőng khó͘-pih. 2016-01-14 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |df= ignored (help)
  15. "Gambas Documentation Introduction". Gambas Website. goân-loē-iông tī October 9, 2017 hőng khó͘-pih. 2017-10-09 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |df= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  16. "Facebook Q&A: Hack brings static typing to PHP world". InfoWorld. March 26, 2014. goân-loē-iông tī February 13, 2015 hőng khó͘-pih. 2015-01-11 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |df= ignored (help)