Pe̍h-ōe

(Tùi Pe̍h-oē choán--lâi)
"Pe̍h-ōe" ê kî-tha ì-sù, khòaⁿ pe̍h-ōe (khu-pia̍t-ia̍h).

Pe̍h-ōe (Eng-gí: vernacular language), ia̍h sī kóng hiong-tâm[1] (hiuⁿ-), ū-sî kóng hong-giân, sī kóng chi̍t-ê cho̍k-kûn ia̍h tē-hng ê chāi-lâi giân-gí he̍k-chiá sī khiuⁿ-kháu, iû-kî sī m̄-sī thoân-thóng-siōng siá-chok bûn-ha̍k ia̍h tòng chò kok-ka piau-chún-gí ê ōe.

The oldest known vernacular manuscript in Scanian (Danish, c. 1250). It deals with Scanian and Scanian Ecclesiastical Law.
An allegory of rhetoric and arithmetic, Trinci Palace, Foligno, Italy, by Gentile da Fabriano, who lived in the era of Italian language standardization.

Chá-kî ê pe̍h-ōe bûn-hoatSiu-kái

1437 nî kàu 1586 nî kan, Au-chiu chhut-hiān Italia-gí, Se-pan-gâ-gí, Hoat-gí, Hô-lân-gí, Tek-gí kap Eng-gí ê bûn-hoat kì-lio̍k. Che sī chia pe̍h-ōe āu--lâi kúi pah tang kòe-têng piau-chún-hòa ê ki-chhó͘ chi it.

Chá-kî ê pe̍h-ōe sû-tiánSiu-kái

Sû-tián (dictionary) kap gú-lūi-chi̍p (glossary) sī bô sio-siâng. Chong-sī chin-chē gú-lūi-chi̍p chin chá to̍h ū, pí-lūn Seville ê Isidore chhut ê Etymologiae, khai-lia̍t chin chē Se-pan-gâ-gí ê tan-jī.

Hô-lân-gíSiu-kái

Hô-lân-gí ê gú-lūi-chi̍p tī chha-put-to 1470 nî ê sî-chūn chhut-hiān, tè-bé tī 16 sè-kì hoat-tián chhut 2 pún Hô-lân-gí sû-tián:[2]

Chham-khóSiu-kái

  1. Ogawa Naoyosi, pian. (1931). "鄉談". Tai-Nichi Dai Jiten 臺日大辭典 [Tâi-Ji̍t Tōa Sû-tián] (ēng Ji̍t-pún-gí). 
  2. Brachin 1985, p. 15

Tsham-khó bûn-hiànSiu-kái

  • Bex, Tony (1999). "Representations of English in twentieth-century Britain: Fowler, Gowers, Partridge". Chū Bex, Tony; Watts, Richard J. Standard English: the widening debate. New York: Routledge. pp. 89–112. 0-415-19162-9. 
  • Brachin, Pierre (1985). The Dutch language: a survey. Leiden: E.J. Brill. 
  • Champneys, Arthur Charles (1893). History of English: a sketch of the origin and development of the English with Examples, Down to the Present Day. New York: Macmillan and Co. 
  • DeGrauwe, Luc (2002). "Emerging Mother-Tongue Awareness: The Special Case of Dutch and German in the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period". Chū Linn, Andrew Robert; McLelland, Nicola. Standardization: studies from the Germanic languages. Amsterdam; Philadelphis: John Benjamins Publishing Co. pp. 99–116. 
  • Diez, Friedrich (1863). Introduction to the grammar of the Romance languages. London, Edinburgh: Williams and Norgate. 
  • Dons, Ute (2004). Descriptive adequacy of early modern English grammars. Topics in English Linguistics. 47. Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter. 
  • Fasold, Ralph W. (1984). The sociolinguistics of society. 1. Oxford, England; New York, NY, USA: B. Blackwell. 
  • Keller, Marcello Sorce (1984). "Folk Music in Trentino: Oral Transmission and the Use of Vernacular Languages". Ethnomusicology. XXVIII (1): 75–89. doi:10.2307/851432. JSTOR 851432. 
  • Lodge, R. Anthony (2005). A sociolinguistic history of Parisian French. Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge University Press. 
  • Mesthrie, Rajend (1999). Introducing sociolinguistics. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. 
  • Noordegraaf, Jan (2000). "The Normative Study of the National Languages from the 17th Century Onwards". Chū Auroux, Sylvain. History of the language sciences: an international handbook on the evolution of the study of language from the beginnings to the present. Handbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft, Bd. 18. 2. Berlin; New York: Walter de Gruyter. pp. 893–900. 
  • Wells, C. J. (1985). German, a linguistic history to 1945. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. 
  • Suhardi, B.; Sembiring, B. Cornelius (2007). "Aspek sosial bahasa". Chū Kushartanti; Yuwono, Untung; Lauder, Multamia R. M. T. Pesona bahasa: langkah awal memahami linguistik (ēng Ìn-nî-gí). Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama. ISBN 978-9792216813. OCLC 156874430. 
  • Fodde Melis, Luisanna (2002). Race, Ethnicity and Dialects: Language Policy and Ethnic Minorities in the United States. FrancoAngeli. ISBN 9788846439123. 

Siong-koanSiu-kái

Guā-pōo liân-kiatSiu-kái

Khì Wiktionary chhâ
Pe̍h-ōe chit ê sû.