拍開主題選單
?Chiáu
Malurus cyaneus (chiáu-kiáⁿ)
Hoà-chio̍h hoān-ûi
Late Jurassic - Recent
Seng-bu̍t-ha̍k hun-lūi
Kài: Animalia
Mn̂g: Chordata
A-mn̂g: Vertebrata
(bô hun-kip) Archosauria
Kong: Aves
Linnaeus, 1758
Ba̍k
Khoàⁿ loē-bûn.

Chiáu-ásio-hoeh, ē pàng-nn̄g ê chek-chui tōng-bu̍t, chú-iàu ê te̍k-teng sī ū ú (feather), ū chò si̍t iōng--ê chêng-pì (forelimb), it-poaⁿ ū khang-sim ê kut-thâu. Chiáu-lūi siōng sè khó-pí kûn-thâu-bú (phang-chhek/hummingbird), siōng toā chhan-chhiūⁿ nâ-kiû kiû-oân (tô-chiáu, Emu) hiah lò.

Bo̍k-lo̍k

Hun-lūi kap chìn-hòaSiu-kái

Chiàu Jacques Gauthier ê gián-kiù, chiáu-lūi ū 4 khoán hō͘-siōng chhiong-tu̍t ê tēng-gī.[1] Chêng 3 hāng sī khah ū būn-tê ê tēng-gī, chia 4 hāng hun-pia̍t sī:

  1. Chiáu-lūi sī chú-liông-lūi (archosaur) lāi-bīn ū ú-mô͘ ê sin-chìn-chiá.
  2. Chiáu-lūi sī ē-tàng poe--ê.
  3. Chiau-lūi sī só͘-ū khah óa chiáu khah bô óa kho̍k-hî--ê.
  4. Chiáu-lūi sī só͘-ū hiān-chûn chiáu-á kap in āu-sì ê kiōng-tông ê chó͘-chian.

Tē 4 hāng sī chi̍t khoán Gauthier thê-chhut ê hun-lūi tēng-gī:

Ha̍k-kài tùi chiáu-lūi bô goân-choân it-tì ê hun-lūi. Charles Sibley kap Jon Ahlquist (1990 nî) ê Chiáu ê Hūn-lūi kap Hē-thóng-lūn (Phylogeny and Classification of Birds) sī tùi chiáu-lūi hun-lūi ê tiòng-iàu tì-chok.[2] Chiàu it-poaⁿ chèng-kù, in-ê bo̍k sī hông jīn-ûi chèng-khak--ê,[3] chóng--sī bo̍k chi kan ê koan-hē iá koh siū ha̍k-chiá cheng-lūn.

Ē-té sī tùi hiān-tāi chiáu-lūi kun-kù Jarvis, E.D. et al. (2014) tùi 48-ê tāi-piáu bu̍t-chéng ê choân ûi-thoán-thé tēng-sū (whole genome sequencing) gián-kiù[4] kap pō͘-hūn Yury, T. et al. (2013) [5] chū-liāu chè-chō ê chi̍t khoán chhin-oân koan-hē tô͘:


Chiáu
Palaeognathae

Struthioniformes (tô-chiáu) 


Notopalaeognathae

Rheiformes (rheas) 





Dinornithiformes (moas)80 px




Lithornithiformes



Tinamiformes (tinamous) 




Novaeratitae

Casuariiformes (emus & cassowaries) 




Apterygiformes (kiwi) 



Aepyornithiformes (chhiūⁿ-chiáu) 







Neognathae
Galloanserae

Galliformes (chicken, grouse, turkeys, etc.) 


Odontoanserae

Pelagornithidae


Anserimorphae

Gastornithiformes 



Anseriformes (ah, gô, kap thian-gô) 





Neoaves
Columbea
Mirandornithes

Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos) 



Podicipediformes (grebes) 



Columbimorphae

Columbiformes (hún-chiáu kap dodo)  




Mesitornithiformes (mesites) 



Pteroclidiformes (sandgrouses) 





Passerea


Cypselomorphae (hummingbirds, swifts) 


Otidimorphae

Cuculiformes (cuckoos) 




Otidiformes (bustards) 



Musophagiformes (turacos) 








Opisthocomiformes (hoatzin) 


Cursorimorphae

Gruiformes (rails and cranes) 



Charadriiformes (gulls, auks, shorebirds, waders) 







Aequornithes (loons, khiā-gô, herons, pelicans, storks, etc)  


Eurypygimorphae

Eurypygiformes (sunbittern, kagu) 



Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds) 




Telluraves
Afroaves
Accipitrimorphae

Cathartiformes (condors and New World vultures) 



Accipitriformes (hawks, eagles, Old World vultures etc.) 





Strigiformes (owls) 


Coraciimorphae

Coliiformes (mousebirds)


Eucavitaves

Leptosomatiformes (cuckoo roller)


Cavitaves

Trogoniformes (trogons) 


Picocoraciae

Bucerotiformes (hornbills, hoopoe and wood hoopoes)  




Coraciformes (kingfishers etc.) 



Piciformes (woodpeckers, toucans etc.)  









Australaves

Cariamiformes (seriemas, terror birds etc)  


Eufalconimorphae

Falconiformes (falcons) 


Psittacopasserae

Psittaciformes (parrots) 



Passeriformes (songbirds and kin)  













Hun-pò͘Siu-kái

Chiáu-lūi seng-oa̍h tī tōa-pō͘-hūn ê lio̍k-tē, tí chhit ê tāi-lio̍k lóng ū chûn-chāi, siâng óa lâm-pêng ê chéng-lūi sī Lâm-kek-chiu hióng lōe-lio̍k 440 kong-lí ū cho̍k-kûn ê Pagodroma nivea.[6] Jia̍t-tāi só͘-chāi sī chiáu-lūi ê to-iūⁿ-sèng (biodiversity) siāng hoat-ta̍t ê tē-khu.

Kái-phò-ha̍kSiu-kái

Chiáu ê kun-keh cho͘-sêng sī chin khin ê kut-thâu, lāi-bīn hâm ē-táng ji̍p khong-khì, kap ho͘-khip hē-thóng sio chiap ê khang-phāng.[7]

Chham-khóSiu-kái

  1. Gauthier, J., and de Queiroz, K. (2001). "Feathered dinosaurs, flying dinosaurs, crown dinosaurs, and the name Aves." Pp. 7–41 in New perspectives on the origin and early evolution of birds: proceedings of the International Symposium in Honor of John H. Ostrom (J. A. Gauthier and L. F. Gall, eds.). Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, U.S.A.
  2. Sibley, Charles; Jon Edward Ahlquist (1990). Phylogeny and classification of birds. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-04085-7. 
  3. Mayr, Ernst; Short, Lester L. (1970). Species Taxa of North American Birds: A Contribution to Comparative Systematics. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club, no. 9. Cambridge, Mass.: Nuttall Ornithological Club. OCLC 517185. 
  4. Jarvis, E.D.; et al. (2014). "Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds". Science. 346 (6215): 1320–1331. doi:10.1126/science.1253451. PMC 4405904 . PMID 25504713. 
  5. Yuri, T.; et al. (2013). "Parsimony and Model-Based Analyses of Indels in Avian Nuclear Genes Reveal Congruent and Incongruent Phylogenetic Signals". Biology. 2 (1): 419–444. doi:10.3390/biology2010419. 
  6. Brooke, Michael (2004). Albatrosses And Petrels Across The World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-850125-0. 
  7. Ehrlich, Paul R.; David S. Dobkin; Darryl Wheye (1988). "Adaptations for Flight". Birds of Stanford. Stanford University. 13 December 2007 khòaⁿ--ê.  Based on The Birder's Handbook (Paul Ehrlich, David Dobkin, and Darryl Wheye. 1988. Simon and Schuster, New York.)