Tōng-bu̍t

(Tùi Animal choán--lâi)
?Tōng-bu̍t
Chhī-leng tōng-bu̍t, chiáu-á, lióng-chhe tōng-bu̍t, kî-thaⁿ.
Hoà-chio̍h hoān-ûi
Late Neoproterozoic - Recent
Seng-bu̍t-ha̍k hun-lūi
He̍k: Eukaryota
Kài: Animalia
Linnaeus, 1758

Tōng-bu̍t (Hàn-jī: 動物) sī chi̍t lūi seng-bu̍t ê miâ, sio̍k-î Tōng-bu̍t-kài (Hàn-jī: 動物界; Ha̍k-miâ: Animalia). In ū-hoat-tō· tín-tāng, m̄-koh bô chhiūⁿ si̍t-bu̍t ū châi-tiāu lī-iōng kng lâi ha̍p-sêng chia̍h-mi̍h (kng-ha̍p-sêng chok-iōng, photosynthesis); in su-iàu siau-hoà pa̍t-ê seng-bu̍t chiah ē-tàng seng-chûn--lo̍h-khì.

Thong-sio̍k gí-giân it-poaⁿ kā jîn-lūi pâi-tû tī tōng-bu̍t-lūi chi gōa. Tōng-bu̍t mā tiāⁿ iōng lâi chò cheng-siⁿ ê tông-gī-sû. Chóng-sī tùi seng-bu̍t-ha̍k ê koan-tiám lâi khoàⁿ, lâng mā sī 1 chióng tōng-bu̍t.[1]

Te̍k-tengSiu-kái

Tōng-bu̍t lóng sī to-sè-pau chin-hu̍t seng-bu̍t.[2][3] Tōa-to-sò͘ ê tōng-bu̍t lóng sī ī-êng seng-bu̍t,[4][5][6] chió-sò͘ tōng-bu̍t ē-sái chìn-hêng bô-sng-sò͘ ho͘-khip,[7] che kah ē kng-chū-êng seng-bu̍t (si̍t-bu̍t, chò-lūi) oân-á bô-kâng.[8] Tōng-bu̍t tī i sìⁿ-miā chiu-kî ê mó͘-chi̍t-ê khám-chām ū ūn-tōng-sèng. Tōa-tō͘-sò͘ tōng-bu̍t ê phoe-thai hoat-io̍k tiong ū phoe-pau-kî.[9] Keng-kòe phoe-pau-kî, sè-pau ē hun-hòa chò bô-kâng ê cho͘-chit kap khì-koan.

To-iūⁿ-sèngSiu-kái

Mn̂g Example Chéng ê sò͘-liōng Lio̍k-seng Hái-seng Tām-chúi To̍k-li̍p seng-oa̍h Kià-seⁿ
Khoân-chat tōng-bu̍t   17,000[10] Sī (thô͘)[11] [11] 1,750[12] 400[13]
Chat-kha tōng-bu̍t   1,257,000[10] 1,000,000

(insects)[14]

>40,000

(Malac- ostraca)[15]

94,000[12] [11] >45,000[lower-alpha 1][13]
Gōa-kong tōng-bu̍t   6,000[10] [11] 60–80[12]
Chek-soh tōng-bu̍t   >70,000[10][16] 23,000[17] 13,000[17] 18,000[12]

9,000[17]

40

(catfish)[18][13]

Chhì-pau tōng-bu̍t   16,000[10] [11] Yes (few)[11] [11] >1,350

(Myxozoa)[13]

Kek-phôe tōng-bu̍t   7,500[10] 7,500[10] [11]
Nńg-thé tōng-bu̍t   85,000[10]

107,000[19]

35,000[19] 60,000[19] 5,000[12]

12,000[19]

[11] >5,600[13]
Sòaⁿ-thâng   25,000[10] Sī (thô͘)[11] 4,000[20] 2,000[12] 11,000[20] 14,000[20]
Píⁿ-hêng tōng-bu̍t   29,500[10] [21] [11] 1,300[12] [11]


3,000–6,500[22]

>40,000[13]


4,000–25,000[22]

Lián-á-thâng   2,000[10] >400[23] 2,000[12]
Hái-mî tōng-bu̍t   10,800[10] [11] 200-300[12] [24]
2013 nî ū kì-lio̍k ê hiān-chûn bu̍t-chèng chóng-siàu: 1,525,728

Hoat-seng-ha̍kSiu-kái

Tōng-bu̍t sī chi̍t ê tan-hē-thóng, ū kiōng-tông chó͘-sian. In kah niá-piⁿ-mn̂g-thângchí-mōe-kûn koan-hē. Ki-kûnhái-mî tōng-bu̍t, loa̍h-á-thē tōng-bu̍t, píⁿ-pôaⁿ tōng-bu̍t, chhì-pau tōng-bu̍t, chia-ê tōng-bu̍t sin-khu m̄ sī nn̄g-pêng tùi-thīn.

Choanozoa

Niá-piⁿ-mn̂g-thâng tōng-bu̍t  


Tōng-bu̍t

Chhek-seng (Hái-mî)  


Chin-āu-seng

Loa̍h-á-thē  


ParaHoxozoa


Píⁿ-pôaⁿ  



Chhì-pau  



Nn̄g-pêng-tùi-thīn

Ī-bô-khiuⁿ  


Sīn-kńg
Āu-kháu

Chek-soh  



Pò͘-tōa  



Goân-kháu
Thǹg-phôe

Scalidophora  




Hoàn-chat-kha  



Sòaⁿ-thâng  



>529 mya
Kńg-lê
Taⁿ-go̍k

Lián-hêng kap kīn-chhin  



Mn̂g-go̍k  



Píⁿ-thâng

Píⁿ-hêng kap kīn-chhin  


Koan-lûn

Nńg-thé kap kīn-chhin  



Khoân-chat kap kīn-chhin  


550 mya
580 mya

610 mya
650 mya
Triploblasts
680 mya

760 mya
950 mya


Hui-nn̄g-pêng-tùi-thīn tōng-bu̍tSiu-kái

Nn̄g-pêng-tùi-thīn tōng-bu̍tSiu-kái

 
Nn̄g-pêng-tùi-thīn tōng-bu̍t ê sin-khu mô͘-hêng.

Ī-bô-khiuⁿ tōng-bu̍t sī nn̄g-pêng-tùi-thīn tōng-bu̍t ê ki-kûn.[25][26][27]

Goân-kháu tōng-bu̍t kap Āu-kháu thong-bu̍tSiu-kái

Tú khai-sí hoat-io̍k ê sî, āu-kháu tōng-bu̍t ê phoe-pau ē hok-siā-sek li̍h-nn̄g, ah tōa-tō͘-sò͘ ê goân-kháu tōng-bu̍t (kńg-lê tōng-bu̍t) ē chìn-hêng kńg-lê-á-hêng li̍h-nn̄g. Chêng-kháu tōng-bu̍t kap āu-kháu thong-bu̍t lóng ū oân-chéng ê siau-hòa-tō, m̄-koh chêng-kháu tōng-bu̍t ê goân-tn̂g chi̍t-khai-sí ê phoe-kang (Eng-gí: blastobore) bóe-á ê hoat-io̍k chò i ê chhùi, tò-thâu hit bóe-liu ē hêng-sêng kong-bûn; ah āu-kháu tōng-bu̍t tú-hó tian-tò, in thâu-·á ê phoe-kang sī hoat-io̍k chò kong-bûn, tò-thâu seⁿ-chò chhùi.[28][29]

 
Goân-kháu tōng-bu̍t (Protostomes, téng-koân) vs. Āu-kháu tōng-bu̍t (Deuterostomes, ē-kha)

Tâi-oân ê tōng-bu̍tSiu-kái

Koan-hē bûn-chiuⁿSiu-kái

Chham-khó chu-liāuSiu-kái

  1. Zhang, Zhi-Qiang (2013-08-30). "Animal biodiversity: An update of classification and diversity in 2013. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic Richness (Addenda 2013)". Zootaxa. 3703 (1): 5. doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3703.1.3. goân-loē-iông tī 24 April 2019 hőng khó͘-pih. 2 March 2018 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  2. Avila, Vernon L. (1995). Biology: Investigating Life on Earth. Jones & Bartlett Learning. pp. 767–. ISBN 978-0-86720-942-6. 
  3. "Palaeos:Metazoa". Palaeos. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 2018-02-28. 2018-02-25 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  4. Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: Bû-hāu ê <ref> tag; chhōe bô chí-miâ ê ref bûn-jī palaeos2
  5. Bergman, Jennifer. "Heterotrophs". goân-loē-iông tī 2007-08-29 hőng khó͘-pih. 2007-09-30 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  6. Douglas, Angela E.; Raven, John A. (January 2003). "Genomes at the interface between bacteria and organelles". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 358 (1429): 5–17. doi:10.1098/rstb.2002.1188. PMC 1693093 . PMID 12594915. 
  7. Mentel, Marek; Martin, William (2010). "Anaerobic animals from an ancient, anoxic ecological niche". BMC Biology. 8: 32. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-8-32. PMC 2859860 . PMID 20370917. 
  8. Davidson, Michael W. "Animal Cell Structure". goân-loē-iông tī 2007-09-20 hőng khó͘-pih. 2007-09-20 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  9. Minkoff, Eli C. (2008). Barron's EZ-101 Study Keys Series: Biology (2nd, revised pán.). Barron's Educational Series. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-7641-3920-8. 
  10. 10.00 10.01 10.02 10.03 10.04 10.05 10.06 10.07 10.08 10.09 10.10 10.11 Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: Bû-hāu ê <ref> tag; chhōe bô chí-miâ ê ref bûn-jī Zhang2013
  11. 11.00 11.01 11.02 11.03 11.04 11.05 11.06 11.07 11.08 11.09 11.10 11.11 11.12 Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: Bû-hāu ê <ref> tag; chhōe bô chí-miâ ê ref bûn-jī Hogenboom2016
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7 12.8 Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: Bû-hāu ê <ref> tag; chhōe bô chí-miâ ê ref bûn-jī Balian2008
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 13.4 13.5 13.6 Ín-iōng chhò-gō͘: Bû-hāu ê <ref> tag; chhōe bô chí-miâ ê ref bûn-jī Poulin2007
  14. Stork, Nigel E. (January 2018). "How Many Species of Insects and Other Terrestrial Arthropods Are There on Earth?". Annual Review of Entomology. 63 (1): 31–45. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-020117-043348. PMID 28938083.  Unknown parameter |s2cid= ignored (help) Stork notes that 1m insects have been named, making much larger predicted estimates.
  15. Poore, Hugh F. (2002). "Introduction". Crustacea: Malacostraca. Zoological catalogue of Australia. 19.2A. CSIRO Publishing. pp. 1–7. ISBN 978-0-643-06901-5. 
  16. Uetz, P. "A Quarter Century of Reptile and Amphibian Databases". Herpetological Review. 52: 246–255. goân-loē-iông tī 21 February 2022 hőng khó͘-pih. 2 October 2021 khòaⁿ--ê – via ResearchGate.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 Reaka-Kudla, Marjorie L.; Wilson, Don E.; Wilson, Edward O. (1996). Biodiversity II: Understanding and Protecting Our Biological Resources. Joseph Henry Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-309-52075-1. 
  18. Burton, Derek; Burton, Margaret (2017). Essential Fish Biology: Diversity, Structure and Function. Oxford University Press. pp. 281–282. ISBN 978-0-19-878555-2. Trichomycteridae ... includes obligate parasitic fish. Thus 17 genera from 2 subfamilies, Vandelliinae; 4 genera, 9spp. and Stegophilinae; 13 genera, 31 spp. are parasites on gills (Vandelliinae) or skin (stegophilines) of fish. 
  19. 19.0 19.1 19.2 19.3 Nicol, David (June 1969). "The Number of Living Species of Molluscs". Systematic Zoology. 18 (2): 251–254. doi:10.2307/2412618. JSTOR 2412618. 
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  22. 22.0 22.1 Pandian, T. J. (2020). Reproduction and Development in Platyhelminthes. CRC Press. pp. 13–14. ISBN 978-1-000-05490-3. goân-loē-iông tī 26 July 2020 hőng khó͘-pih. 19 May 2020 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  23. Fontaneto, Diego. "Marine Rotifers | An Unexplored World of Richness" (PDF). JMBA Global Marine Environment. pp. 4–5. goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī 2 March 2018 hőng khó͘-pih. 2 March 2018 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  24. Morand, Serge; Krasnov, Boris R.; Littlewood, D. Timothy J. (2015). Parasite Diversity and Diversification. Cambridge University Press. p. 44. ISBN 978-1-107-03765-6. goân-loē-iông tī 12 December 2018 hőng khó͘-pih. 2 March 2018 khòaⁿ--ê.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  25. Philippe, H.; Brinkmann, H.; Copley, R.R.; Moroz, L.L.; Nakano, H.; Poustka, A.J.; Wallberg, A.; Peterson, K.J.; Telford, M.J. (2011). "Acoelomorph flatworms are deuterostomes related to Xenoturbella". Nature. 470 (7333): 255–258. Bibcode:2011Natur.470..255P. doi:10.1038/nature09676. PMC 4025995 . PMID 21307940. 
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