拍開主題選單

Taksin Tāi-tè (Thài-kok-gí: สมเด็จพระเจ้าตากสินมหาราช Somdet Phra Chao Taksin Maha Rat thiaⁿ , 1734 nî 4 goe̍h 17 ji̍t – 1782 nî 4 goe̍h 7 ji̍t) sī Siam-lô (Thài-kok) Thonburi Ông-kok ûi-it ê kok-ông, 1769 nî kàu 1782 nî chāi-ūi. I ê Tiong-kok miâ-jī kiò chò Tēⁿ Chiau (鄭昭), goân-lâi ê miâ-jī kiò chò Sin (สิน), Tēⁿ Sin (鄭新), Tēⁿ Siⁿ (鄭生) ia̍h Tēⁿ Kok-eng (鄭國英). Hàn-bûn ê bûn-hiàn mā kiò i Kam-un-chhit (甘恩敕) ia̍h Phi-ngá Sin (丕雅新).

Taksin Tāi-tè
สมเด็จพระเจ้าตากสินมหาราช
Boromraja 4-sè
KingTaksin of Thonburi.jpg
Siam-lô kok-ông
Chāi-ūi 1767 nî 12 goe̍h 28 ji̍t – 1782 nî 4 goe̍h 6 ji̍t
Ka-bián 1767 nî 12 goe̍h 28 ji̍t
Chêng-jīm Ekkathat (Ayutthaya Ông-kok)
Kè-jīm Phuttha Yotfa Chulalok (Rattanakosin Ông-kok)
Jī-ông Inthraphithak
Phoè-ngó͘ Batboricha
Kiáⁿ-jî 30 kiáⁿ-jî[1]
Ông-sek Thonburi Ông-tiâu
Lāu-pē Yong Saetae[2]
Lāu-bú Nok-lang (Phithak Thephamat)
Chhut-sì 1734 nî 4 goe̍h 17 ji̍t(1734-04-17)
Ayutthaya Ông-kok Ayutthaya
Kòe-sin 1782 nî 4 goe̍h 7 ji̍t (47 hòe)
Thonburi Ông-kok Thonburi Phra Racha Wang Derm
Chong-kàu Hu̍t-kàu

Taksin goân-lâi sī Siam-lô Ayutthaya Ông-kok ê chi̍t ê chiong-kun, i ê a-pa sī Tiô-chiu-lâng î-bîn. 1767 nî, Bián-tiān bia̍t-bông Siam-lô, i khí-peng hoán-khòng Bián-tiān thóng-tī, chiong-kî-boé khoe-ho̍k to̍k-li̍p pēng-chhiáⁿ thóng-it choân-kok. I kiàn-li̍p Thonburi Ông-kok, chiong siú-to͘ khí tī Thonburi (kin-á-ji̍t ê Bangkok Thonburi Khu). Chāi-ūi ê sî-hāu, phah thè Bián-tiān ê ji̍p-chhim, chhim-lio̍k Lanna (Chiang Mai), Laos kap Kampuchea. Lēng-goā, i chek-ke̍k thui-chìn Thài-kok ê kàu-io̍k kap chong-kàu ha̍k-si̍p, kap Tiong-kok, Eng-kok, Hô-lân chò-seng-lí.

Chia̍h-lāu ê i ū khong-tian ê pēⁿ, koaⁿ-liâu kap cheng-lū tùi i put-boán. 1782 nî, i hō͘ Phraya San chèng-piàn lo̍h-tâi. Chiong-kun Somdet Chao Phraya Maha Ksatriyaseuk (Rama 1-sè) tùi Kampuchea tńg-lâi, tìn-ap Phraya San ê poān-loān, chiong Taksin thâi--sí. Maha Ksatriyaseuk chiūⁿ-tâi chiong siú-to͘ poaⁿ khì Bangkok ê Rattanakosin Tó, kiàn-li̍p Rattanakosin Ông-kok kap Chakri Ông-tiâu.

Kin-á-ji̍t Thài-kok-lâng chin chun-kèng i, chiong i kiò chò Taksin Tāi-tè ia̍h Thonburi Tāi-tè (สมเด็จพระเจ้ากรุงธนบุรี Somdet Phra Chao Krung Thonburi).

Seng-pêngSiu-kái

Chá-kîSiu-kái

Taksin tī Ayutthaya Hú chhut-sì, i ê lāu-pē Yong Saetae (Tiong-kok miâ: Tēⁿ Iông 鄭鏞 ia̍h Tēⁿ Ián 鄭偃) sī Ayutthaya Ông-kok siu-soè ê koaⁿ-liâu, tùi Tiong-kok Kńg-tang ê Têng-hái lâi kàu chia.[2][3] Taksin lāu-bú Nok-iang sī Siam-lô lâng.[4] Taksin iáu sī gín-á-kiáⁿ ê sî-hāu, Siam-lô ê Samuhanayok (siú-siòng) Chao Phraya Chakri (Mut) tùi i ìn-siōng chin chhim, chiū-án-ne chiong i siu chò ka-kī ê ióng-chú, khí miâ-jī kiò chò Sin (สิน), tī Thài-gí lāi-bīn sī "chu-pó" ê ì-sù. 7 hoè ê sî-hāu ji̍p Wat Kosawat (chia biō-sī kin-á-ji̍t kiò Wat Choeng Tha)[5] chò hoê-siūⁿ chò 3 nî, tī chia sî-kî i kap Thongduang (Rama 1-sè) piàn-sêng hó-hiaⁿ-tī. Ū khoàⁿ-miā-sian kóng in í-āu lóng ē chò kok-ông.[6] I ha̍k-si̍p Tiô-chiu-oē, Oa̍t-lâm-oē kap Ìn-tō͘ ê oē, kóng ê chin liàn-tńg. Āu--lâi i hō͘ kok-ông Ekkathat jīm-bēng chò Tak Hú ê thài-siú, chiok-ūi sī Phraya Tak (พระยาตาก), tùi chia sî-hāu khai-sí i hō͘ lâng kiò chò "Taksin".

1764 nî, Bián-tiān chhim-lio̍k Siam-lô ê lâm-pō͘. Bián-tiān chiong-kun Maha Nawrahta phah kàu Phetchaburi Hú ê sî-hāu, i kap Kosadhibodhi chiong Bián-tiān pēng phah thè. 1765 nî, hō͘ jīm-bēng chò Kamphaeng Phet Hú ê thài-siú, chiok-ūi Phraya Vajiraprakarn (พระยาวชิรปราการ); m̄-koh i bô khì Kamphaeng Phet chiūⁿ-jīm, in-ūi Bián-tiān tī chia sî-hāu pau-ûi siú-to͘ Ayutthaya, i tī siú-to͘ chham-ka chiàn-tàu.

Hóng-khòng Bián-tiān kap to̍k-li̍pSiu-kái

 
Chantaburi ê Taksin tiau-siōng.

1767 nî 1 goe̍h 3 ji̍t, i kám-kak siú-to͘ bô-hoat-tō͘ hông-siú, toà-niá 500 lâng cháu khì Rayong. 4 goe̍h 7 ji̍t, Ayutthaya hō͘ Bián-tiān pēng chiàm-niá, kok-ông Ekkathat gō--sí. Taksin tī Rayong khí-peng hoán-khòng Bián-tiān thóng-tī, Luang Yokkrabat (Tongduang) kap Nai Sudchinda (Boonma) cháu lâi chi-chhî i. 7 goe̍h 15 ji̍t, Taksin ê pō͘-tūi tī àm-mê chiàm-niá Chanthaburi. Chonburi kap Trat boē siū kàu Bián-tiān ê chhim-lio̍k, hia ê chin chē lâng lâi chham-ka i ê pō͘-tūi. Í-āu Chonburi kap Trat sī Taksin tiōng-iàu ê ki-tē.[7][8]

Bián-tiān chiàm-niá Ayutthaya í-āu, jīm-bēng Suki chò Ayutthaya chóng-tok. Bián-tiān ê chú-le̍k pō͘-tūi thiat-lī Siam-lô, tiàu khì phah Chheng-kok ê Hûn-lâm. 1767 nî 11 goe̍h 6 ji̍t, Taksin toà phiaⁿ 5000 lâng, iû Chao Phraya Hô chiàm-niá Thonburi, thâi--sí Bián-tiān jīm-bēng ê chóng-tok Thong-in.[9] Toā-táⁿ ê i hut-jiân phah Phosamton (Ayutthaya hū-kīn) ê Bián-tiān pō͘-tūi, siu-ho̍k siú-to͘ Ayutthaya.[8]

Taksin choē tio̍h Ekkathat ê sí-thé, chiong i hoé-chòng.[10] I khó-lêng sī in-ūi Ayutthaya í-keng húi-bia̍t, siu-lí chia siâⁿ tio̍h sái kok-ka chin chē chu-goân, pēng-chhiáⁿ Bián-tiān-lâng ē-hiáu Ayutthaya ê jio̍k-tiám, chiong-kî-boé i soán-te̍k Thonburi chò sin ê siú-to͘ . Thonburi tī hái-kîⁿ, i bē iông-ī hō͘ Bián-tiān lio̍k-kun ji̍p-chhim; pēng-chhiáⁿ tī Chao Phraya Hô ê ji̍p-hái-kháu, siōng-iû ê iá-sim-ka bô-hoat-tō͘ tit kàu bú-khì kap pó͘-kip, chiū-án-ne bô-hoat-tō͘ kiàn-li̍p ka-kī ê to̍k-li̍p kok-ka.[11] Taksin tī Thonburi teng-tiàu sū-peng, siu-soè, khí siâⁿ; nā-sī siū kàu kong-kek, iā ū hoat-tō͘ chē chûn thiat-thè kàu Chanthaburi.[12]

Teng-ki kap thóng-it choân-kokSiu-kái

 
Taksin ê ka-bián gî-sek.

1767 nî 12 goe̍h 28 ji̍t, Taksin tī Phra Racha Wang Derm teng-ki ûi Siam-lô kok-ông.[13] I ê chun-hō sī Krung Phra Maha Nakhon Si Ayutthaya, Boromraja 4-sè kap Phra Sri Sanphet, tān-sī kin-á-ji̍t Thài-kok-lâng it-poaⁿ kiò i Phraya Tak, Sin ia̍h Thonburi Tāi-tè. Hái-kîⁿ ê Thonburi hō͘ khak-tēng chò siú-to͘ , chia tē-hng sek-ha̍p hoat-tián bō͘-e̍k. M̄-koh i chāi-ūi ê sî-hāu Siam-lô it-ti̍t chiàn-cheng, bô-hoat-tō͘ chiong i khí siâⁿ toā siâⁿ-chhī.[14][15]

Ayutthaya Ông-kok bia̍t-bông ê sî-hāu, Siam-lô bô kok-ông, hun-lia̍t siâⁿ 5 ê kok-ka. Borommakot ê kiáⁿ Krom Muen Thep Phiphit chiàm-iú Nakhon Ratchasima; Chao Phraya Phitsanulok (Rueng Rochonkul) chiàm-iú Phitsanulok kap Nakhon Sawan, soan-pò͘ to̍k-li̍p; Sawangburi ê hoê-siūⁿ thâu-lâng Chumnum Chao Phra Fang chiàm-iú Uttaradit, chū-chheng kok-ông; tī Siam-lô lâm-pō͘, Chao Phraya Nakhon Si Thammarat (Nu) chiàm-iú Nakhon Si Thammarat, mā soan-pò͘ to̍k-li̍p.[16]

Kióng-kò͘ ka-kī tī Thonburi thóng-tī í-āu, Taksin koat-tēng thóng-it kok-ka. I seng phah Phitsanulok, tān-sī sit-pāi.[17] Choè-āu, i koat-tēng seng phah choè jio̍k-sè ê Thep Phiphit. 1768 nî, i tìn-ap Thep Phiphit, chiong i thâi--sí. Chao Narasuriyawong kè-sio̍k hoán-khòng, Taksin chiàm-niá Phimai, Chao Narasuriyawong sit-chong.[18]

1769 nî, Taksin phài Phraya Chakri (Thongduang) phah Nakhon Si Thammarat, tī Chaiya chiàn-pāi. Taksin ka-kī chham-ka chiàn-tàu, choè-chong phah iâⁿ. Pattani ê sultan lia̍h tio̍h Chao Phraya Nakhon Si Thammarat, sàng hō͘ Taksin.[19] Taksin sià-bián i ê choē, niū i toà tī Thonburi.

1770 nî, Taksin chiàm-niá Phitsanulok kap Uttaradit, Chao Phra Fang cháu khì Bián-tiān. Taksin choè-chong thóng-it Siam-lô.

Bián-tiān ê ji̍p-chhimSiu-kái

Bián-tiān ông Hsinbyushin bô pàng-sak niū Siam-lô khut-ho̍k ê kè-oē; thiaⁿ-kóng Taksin tī Thonburi kiàn-kok, i tī 1767 nî bēng-lēng Tavoy ê chóng-tok cheng-ho̍k Siam-lô. Bián-tiān pō͘-tūi kiâⁿ kàu Samut Songkhram, hō͘ Taksin phah thoè.[20] Tiong-kok ji̍p-chhim Bián-tiān, Hsinbyushin bô-ta-oâ kiò i ê toā pō͘-tūi tńg khì tí-khòng.

Āu-boé Bián-tiān kap ta̍t-sêng hô-pêng hia̍p-gī, Hsinbyushin tī 1774 nî koh phài 5,000 lâng chhim-lio̍k Siam-lô. Chia pō͘-tūi tī Ratchaburi ê Bangkeo hō͘ Taksin pau-ûi, in-ûi bô mi̍h-chia̍h, put-tek-í hiòng Taksin tâu-hâng. Taksin goân-lâi beh chiong in lóng thâi--sí, tān-sī choè-chiong koat-tēng chiong in lia̍h lâi thê-ko Thài-kok-lâng ê sū-khì.[21] jiân-āu i siau-bia̍t Kanchanaburi ê Bián-tiān oān-pēng. 1775 nî 10 goe̍h, Hsinbyushin koh phài Maha Thiha Thura lâi phah Siam-lô. Maha Thiha Thura sī Bián-tiān chhut-miâ ê chiong-kun, i sī tùi Tiong-kok chiàn-cheng ê chóng-su-lēng, í-chêng tìn-ap koè Peguan ê poān-loān.

 
Bangkeo chiàn-tàu

Bián-tiān pō͘-tūi keng-koè Siam-lô ê Melamao Koan, kiâⁿ kàu Phitsanulok, poàⁿ-lō͘ chiàm-niá Phichai kap Sukhothai. Bián-tiān piaⁿ pau-ûi Phitsanulok, Chao Phraya Chakri (Thongduang) kap Chao Phraya Surasih (Boonma) toà piaⁿ tī siâⁿ-thâu tí-khòng 4 goe̍h-ji̍t. Chao Phraya Surasih chia lâng hō͘ kiò chò Phraya Sua ("Phraya hó͘"), chèng-bêng i chò tāi-chì chân-jím pēng-chhiáⁿ kui-khì.[22] M̄-koh in-ûi bô mi̍h-chia̍h, kui-boé Chakri kap Surasih hòng-khì Phitsanulok, thiat-thè kàu Phetchabun. 1776 nî 4 goe̍h, Bián-tiān pō͘-tūi chiàm-niá Phitsanulok, tō biān-lîm bô mi̍h-chia̍h ê būn-tê. Tī chia sî-hāu Hsinbyushin koè-sin, Singu Min siōng-tâi. Singu Min bēng-lēng tùi Siam-lô thiat-thè. Bián-tiān pēng tī 9 goe̍h oân-choân hō͘ koáⁿ chhut Siam-lô.[23][24]

Taksin jīn-ûi Bián-tiān lâng chiàm-niá Chiang Mai (Lanna) sī tùi Siam-lô pak-pō͘ ê chin toā ui-hia̍p. Nā-sī bô-hoat-tō͘ chiàm-niá Chiang Mai, tō bô-hoat-tō͘ î-chhî chia tē-hng ê hô-pêng.[25] 1771 nî, i tī Phichai phah thè Bián-tiān piaⁿ í-hāu ji̍p-chhim Chiang Mai, tān-sī siū kàu goân-kiông tí-khòng í-āu i koat-tēng thiat-thè.[26] Phichai tī 1773 nî iū siū kàu Bián-tiān piaⁿ ui-hia̍p, hō͘ chóng-tok Phraya Phichai (Thongdi) toà piaⁿ phah thè. Phraya Phichai tī chiàm-tàu tiong chiong ka-kī ê daab (Thài-kok kiàm) phah tn̄g, chiū-án-ne tit kàu Daap Hak ("tn̄g liáu ê kiàm") ê goā-hō. Chao Phraya Chakri (Thongduang) kap Chao Phraya Surasih (Boonma) toà piaⁿ kàu Lampang, nn̄g ê Bián-tiān chiong-kun Phraya Chaban kap Phraya Kawila poān-piàn lâi chi-chhî Siam-lô, chham-ka Chakri tùi Chiang Mai ê pau-ûi-chhiàm. Taksin toà piaⁿ chi-oān Chakri, choè-āu tī 1775 nî 1 goe̍h chiàm-niá liáu chia. Chaban hō͘ jīm-bēng chò Chiang Mai chóng-tok (hong-hō Phraya Wichienprakarn); Phraya Kawila hō͘ jīm-bēng chò Lampang chóng-tok, Phraya Waiwong hō͘ jīm-bēng chò Lamphun chóng-tok.[27]Chao Phraya Chakri lâu tiàm chia pang-chān in tìn-ap pak-hng ê poān-loān, koh cheng-ho̍k Laos. Laos (Luang Prabang kap Vientiane) hō͘ Bián-tiān īng chò kè-sio̍k hiòng tang khok-tiong ê ki-tē, 1776 nî, Bián-tiān chiong 6,000 lâng lâu tī Laos. Chiang Mai jîm-kháu chin chió pēng-chhiáⁿ khah khêng, bô-hoat-tō͘ hông-siú. Taksin bēng-lēng hòng-khì chia siâⁿ, chiong lâng choán-î kàu Lampang. 5 nî í-āu, Taksin tiông-sin chiàm-niá Chiang Mai.[28]

Phah Kampuchea kap Oa̍t-lâmSiu-kái

1769 nî, Kampuchea hoat-seng hūn-loān, Ang Non (Ang Non 2-sè, Ramaraja) kap Ang Ton (Outey 2-sè, Narairaja) nn̄g ê hiaⁿ-tī cheng-to̍at ông-ūi, Ang Ton siū kàu Oa̍t-lâm ê chi-chhî chò liáu kok-ông, Ang Non cháu lâi Siam-lô. Taksin chiong che sū-kiāⁿ tòng-chò khòng-chè Kampuchea ê chioh-kháu, phài piaⁿ sàng Ang Non tńg khì chhiúⁿ ông-ūi, tān-sī bô sêng-kong.[29][30] Keh-nî, i koh hoat-tōng tùi Kampuchea ê chiàn-cheng, bē siūⁿ chiong Oa̍t-lâm Nguyễn Chú ê piaⁿ koáⁿ chhut Kampuchea. Kin-kì Oa̍t-lâm bûn-hiàn ê kì-chài, nn̄g ê Ayutthaya cháu khì kok-goā: Chao Sisang (jī-ông Thammathibet ê kiáⁿ) cháu khì Kampuchea; Chao Chui (Aphai Ông-chú ê kiáⁿ, Thai Sa ê sun-á) cháu khì Hà Tiên (河僊, Hô-sian), tī hia hō͘ Oa̍t-lâm Hà Tiên ê chóng-tok Bo̍h Sū-lîn (莫士麟, Mạc Thiên Tứ) siu-liû.[31] Siam-lô piaⁿ choè chhoe chiàn-pāi, tān-sī tī 1771 nî kap 1772 nî phah iâⁿ Oa̍t-lâm piaⁿ, niū Ang Non teng-ki chò kok-ông. 1771 nî, Siam-lô chiàm-niá Hà Tiên, Bo̍h Sū-lîn cháu-khì Gia Định (嘉定, Hồ Chí Minh Chhī). Taksin jīm-bēng Tiô-chiu-lâng Phraya Phiphit (Tân Liân, 陳聯, Trần Liên) chò Hà Tiên ê chóng-tok. Tī Kampuchea ê sit-pāi ín-khí Oa̍t-lâm kok-lāi ê poān-loān, put-tit-í Nguyễn Chú tī 1773 nî kap Siam-lô ta̍t-sêng hô-kái, sêng-jīn Ang Non sī Kampuchea kok-ông. Ang Non hong Ang Ton (Outey) chò Maha Upayuvaraja ("siap-chèng thài-siōng-ông"), Ang Ton ê toā-hiaⁿ Ang Tham chò Maha Uparaja ("hù-ông"). Chioh-toà 3 nî ê Bo̍h Sū-lîn tńg kàu Hà Tiên.[32] 1777 nî, Oa̍t-lâm hoat-seng Tây Sơn poān-loān, thui-hoan Nguyễn Chú ê chèng-khoân, chiong Nguyễn Phúc Thuần kap Nguyễn Phúc Dương thâi--sí. Taksin siu-liû chin chē cháu lâi Siam-lô ê Oa̍t-lâm koaⁿ-liâu, kî-tiong ū Bo̍h Sū-lîn. Nguyễn Ánh siūⁿ-beh kap Taksin kiat-bêng, tān-sī Nguyễn Huệ sàn-pò͘ iâu-giân, Taksin choè-āu chiong Bo̍h Sū-lîn thâi--sí.

Ang Non tùi ông-ūi ê an-pâi chin put-boán, 1777 nî, Ang Non chiong Ang Ton kap Ang Tham àm-sat. 1780 nî Kampuchea ông-chú Talaha (Mu) khí-peng poān-loān, ín-chhoā Oa̍t-lâm piaⁿ thâi--sí Ang Non, li̍p Ang Eng chò kok-ông. Taksin li̍p ka-kī ê kiáⁿ Inthraphithak chò Kampuchea kok-ông, phài Somdet Chao Phraya Maha Ksatriyaseuk toà 20,000 piaⁿ khì phah Kampuchea, m̄-koh choè-āu in-ūi Siam-lô hoat-seng loē-loān, Siam-lô piaⁿ tī 1782 nî tùi Kampuchea thiat-thè.

Phah LaosSiu-kái

1777 nî, Champasak kun-chú chi-chhî Siam-lô tang-pō͘ Nang Rong ê chóng-tok khí-peng poān-loān. Taksin phài Chao Phraya Chakri khì tìn-ap, thâi--sí Nang Rong chóng-tok. Tī Chao Phraya Surasih ê chi-oān hā, Chakri bia̍t-bông Champasak, chiong kun-chú Chao O thâi-thâu. Taksin chin hoaⁿ-hí, hong Chakri chò Somdej Chao Phraya Maha Kasatsuek Piluekmahima Tuknakara Ra-adet, che sī Siam-lô choè ko ê chiok-ūi.

Keh-nî, Vientiane ông-chú Pra Voh poān-loān, cháu kàu Champasak, toà tī Ubon hū-kīn ê Don Mot Daeng, siū kàu Siam-lô ê pó-hō͘. Siam-lô piaⁿ thiat-thè í-āu, Vientiane kok-ông Ong Boun phài lâng phah Don Mot Daeng, chiong Pra Voh thâi--sí. Taksin jīn-ûi che tāi-chì sī tùi ka-kī chin toā ê bú-jio̍k, 1778 nî, phài Maha Kasatsuek toà 20,000 lâng phah Vientiane. Luang Prabang kok-ông Suriyavong 2-sè kap Ong Boun bē-hô, hiòng Siam-lô khut-ho̍k, toà piaⁿ pang-chān Maha Kasatsuek pau-ûi Vientiane.[33] Siam-lô piaⁿ tī 4 goe̍h ji̍t í-āu chiàm-niá Vientiane, Ong Boun cháu khì sim-lîn. Maha Kasatsuek chiong Phra Kaeo Morakot kap Phra Bang nn̄g ê hu̍t-siōng toà tńg Thonburi. Chiông-chhú Laos ê nn̄g ê kok-ka Luang Prabang kap Vientiane piàn-sêng Siam-lô ê hù-sio̍k-kok (附屬國).[34]

Keng-chè, bûn-hoà kap chong-kàuSiu-kái

 
Lô-má Kok-ka Phok-bu̍t-koán ê Taksin oē-siōng.

Taksin tī Thonburi kiàn-kok ê sî-hāu, peh-sèⁿ bô mi̍h-chia̍h, bô saⁿ chhēng. Taksin ē-hiáu ka-kī ê khùn-kéng, iu-sian kái-koat keng-chè ê būn-tê. I ēng ka-kī ê chîⁿ chhut koân kè khip-ín hoan-á seng-lí-lâng toà lâi ū-gia̍h ê seng-oa̍h pit-su-phín, i koh boé lâi hun-phoè hō͘ peh-sèⁿ, sàng in tńg-chhù, chiū-án-ne kok-ka ê tia̍t-sū khoe-ho̍k, keng-chè ho̍k-so͘. [35]

1777 nî ê bûn-hiàn kóng kàu, Thài-kok ê tiōng-iàu siong-phín ū hó͘-phek (琥珀), n̂g-kim, pó-chio̍h, ngē iân téng-téng. Taksin kó͘-lē Hoâ-jîn (te̍k-pia̍t sī Tiô-chiu-lâng) lâi Siam-lô tēng-ki,[36] tī it-tēng thêng-tō͘ siōng ū niū keng-chè ho̍k-so͘[37] kap thê-ko lô-tōng-le̍k ê bo̍k-te̍k.[38] I chāi-ūi ê toā pō͘-hūn ūi-liáu î-chhî kok-ka ê to̍k-li̍p chiàn-tàu. Hoâ-jîn tī keng-chè ê éng-hióng-le̍k chiām-chiām khok-tāi, ín-khí Ayutthaya kùi-cho̍k ê hoán-tùi. Chò-thâu hoán-tùi ê sī Bunnag ka-cho̍k, chia ka-cho̍k ê chó͘-sian sī sìn-hōng I-su-lân ê Pho-su seng-lí-lâng, sè-tāi koaⁿ pài Ayutthaya Ông-kok ê Phra Klang (káng-kháu kap châi-chèng pō͘-tiúⁿ).[39]

Siam-lô ê phâng-chûn kiâⁿ kàu Phû-tô-gâ léng Ìn-tō͘ Goa ê Surat, tān-sī chèng-sek ê goā-kau koan-hē iáu boē khak-tēng. 1776 nî, Tāi Britain Ông-kok ê Francis Light sàng lâi 1,400 ê sūi-hoat-chhèng (燧發銃, flintlock) kap kî-thaⁿ lé-bu̍t. Taksin bēng-lēng tùi Eng-lân boé chhèng. 1777 nî, Eng-kok léng Ìn-tō͘ ê Madras chóng-tok George Stratton sàng i chi̍t ê ēng pó-chio̍h chò chng-thāⁿ ê n̂g-kim chò ê to-siù.[40]

1770 nî, Terengganu kap Batavia (kin-á-ji̍t Jakarta) ê goân-chū-bîn sàng i 2,200 sàn-tān-chhèng (散彈銃, shotgun).[41]

Taksin chhim-ji̍p tiông-kiàn kok-ka ê hoat-lu̍t tia̍t-sū, koh chip-hêng chi̍t ê kong-kiōng hok-lī kè-oē. I ki̍p-sî kiù-chèng Hu̍t-kàu khoân-ui kap peh-sèⁿ ê pháiⁿ-phiah, chiong chia̍h-mi̍h kap saⁿ sàng hō͘ ū su-iàu ê lâng.[42]

Taksin tùi pau-koat bú-tō kap hì-kio̍k chāi lāi gē-su̍t lóng ū hèng-chhù. 1769 nî, Taksin tìn-ap liáu Chao Phraya Nakhon Si Thammarat í-āu, chiong Chao Nakhon ê cha-bó͘ bú-tō-ka (舞蹈家) toà tńg Thonburi, niū in kap kî-thaⁿ tē-hng lâi ê bú-tō-ka àn-chiàu Ayutthaya ê bô͘-sek hùn-liān chhut chi̍t ê hông-ka bú-thoân (舞團). Taksin chhin-chhiú siā 4 khek Ramakian ê chhah-khek (插曲), niū in pâi-liān piáu-ián.[43][44]

Taksin khì pak-hng tìn-ap Chao Phra Fang ê sî-hāu, hoat-hiān hia ê hoê-siūⁿ tùi ka-kī m̄ giâm-keh kap bô siu-ióng. I iau-chhiáⁿ siú-to͘ ê Hu̍t-kàu khoân-ui khì hia kàu-io̍k hoê-siūⁿ, niū in hû-ha̍p Hu̍t-kàu ê ki-pún kàu-gī. M̄-koh i thóng-tī sî-kan khah té, iáu bô-hoat-tō͘ chhim-ji̍p si̍t-hiān.

Thonburi kè-sêng Ayutthaya ê Sangha chè-tō͘.[45] I ín-chún Hoat-kok thoân-kàu-sū lâi Siam-lô, tī 1780 nî pang-chān in kiàn-lia̍p kàu-tn̂g.

Kap Tiong-kok ê koan-hēSiu-kái

 
Tiong-kok Kńg-tang Têng-hái-khu „Tēⁿ Hông Taksin kong-hn̂g“ (郑皇达信公园) ê ji̍p-kháu.

1767 nî Bián-tiān chiàm-niá Ayutthaya í-āu, Bián-tiān kap Chheng-kok hoat-seng chiàn-cheng. Siam-lô hō͘ Bián-tiān ji̍p-chhim ê sū-kiāⁿ iā siū kàu Chheng-kok ê kéng-kak (警覺). Taksin phài 3 ê goā-kau sú-thoân (使團) khì Tiong-kok, iau-kiû Khiân-liông Hông-tè chhek-hong (冊封) ka-kī chò Siam-lô kok-ông. Tān-sī Oa̍t-lâm ê Hà Tiên (河僊, Hô-sian) chóng-tok Bo̍h Sū-lîn (莫士麟, Mạc Thiên Tứ) hiòng Chheng-kok khòng-kò i sī chi̍t ê chhuàn-ūi-chiá (篡位者).[46][47] Bo̍h Sū-lîn iā siu-iông Ayutthaya ê ông-chú Chao Chui.[31][48][49][47] Chheng-kok bô sêng-jīn i ê thóng-tī, tān-sī jīm-ûi Siam-lô sī tùi-khòng Bián-tiān ê bêng-iú. Kàu 1772 nî, Taksin chiàm-niá Hà Tiên, thâi--sí Chao Chui, Khiân-liông Hông-tè chiah sêng-jīn i sī ha̍p-hoat ê kok-ông.[50]

Thài-kok ê Tiô-chiu-lâng tùi Taksin ê teng-ki kòng-hiàn chin toā. In-ûi Taksin ū it-poaⁿ ê Tiô-chiu-lâng hiat-thóng, i ēng chia lâi hō-tiàu Tiô-chiu kiâu-bîn. Tiô-chiu kiâu-bîn chi-chhî i chia̍h-mi̍h kap chiàn-cheng pit-su-phín, niū i ū hoat-tō͘ kiàn-kok. Tn̂g-kú lâi khoàⁿ, ū hoat-tō͘ chi-hù kok-ka khai-siau, î-chhî ông-ka, kùi-cho̍k kap hù-jū seng-lí-lâng ka-têng.[51]

Tâng sî-kî ê François Henri Turpin kóng i chia lâng chin tāi-hong, hia sî-hāu ê pháiⁿ-miā-lâng ǹg-bāng put-chài chheng-hân. Taksin khí kong-khò͘ lâi kiù-chè peh-sèⁿ. Tī i chāi-ūi sî-hāu, châi-sán kap sèⁿ-miā an-choân tiông-sin tit kàu pó-chiong. M̄-koh i tùi hoan-choē-chiá chin giâm, hoat-lu̍t hō͘ choan-chè chú-tāi, choè āu ín-khí poān-loān.[52]

Taksin ê chó͘-sian sī Tiô-chiu-lâng, só͘-í siū kàu Thài-kok Hoâ-jîn ê chông-pài, chiong i kiò chò Tēⁿ Ông-kong (鄭王公, แต่อ่วงกง). 1921 nî, chi̍t ê i ê i-koan-bō͘ kap chó͘-biō khí tī Tiong-kok Kńg-tang-séng Têng-hái-koān ê Hoâ-hù-chhun (tī kin-á-ji̍t Soàⁿ-thâu-chhī Têng-hái-khu Siōng-hoâ-tìn).[53] Chia bō͘ hō͘ Soàⁿ-thâu lâng kiò chò „Tēⁿ Ông bō͘“ (郑王墓), bō͘-pi siá „Siam-lô Tēⁿ Hông Taksin Tāi-tè i-koan-bō͘“ (暹罗郑皇达信大帝衣冠墓). 1984 nî 12 goe̍h 5 ji̍t, í „Tēⁿ Sìn i-koan-bō͘“ (郑信衣冠墓) ê miâ lia̍t ji̍p Têng-hái-khu bûn-bu̍t tiōng-tiám pó-hō tan-ūi (澄海区文物保护单位). Sirindhorn Kong-chú tī 1998 nî lâi chia hóng-būn koè. Kin-á-ji̍t chia bō͘ hū-kīn sī chi̍t ê kong-hn̂g, kiò chò „Tēⁿ Hông Taksin kong-hn̂g“ (郑皇达信公园).

Chia̍h-lāuSiu-kái

Thài-kok le̍k-sú-ha̍k-ka kóng, in-ūi hiat-thóng ê būn-tê tùi i éng-hióng put-lī, Taksin khai-sí tùi chong-kàu chin chhi-bê. I siong-sìn ka-kī tī bī-lâi sêng Pu̍t, hi-bāng chiong ka-kī ê hoeh tùi âng-sek piàn-sêng pe̍h-sek. I khai-sí liān-si̍p bêng-sióng (冥想), tùi hoê-siūⁿ ián-káng. Kèng-ka giâm-tiōng ê sī, i kiông-pek cheng-lū hō͘ ka-kī ū-liû (預流, sotāpanna) ê ūi-kai, ēng-lâi chèng-bêng ka-kī ta̍t kàu Sù-hiòng sù-kó (四向四果) lāi-bīn ê tē 1 kip. I ê hêng-ûi niū Siam-lô Hu̍t-kàu ê kàu-hoē hun-lia̍t. Kū-choa̍t sêng-jīn i sī sîn-bêng (神明) ê cheng-lū (僧侣) hō͘ i ēng sut-á phah, phoàⁿ in chò lô͘-lē.

Lēng-goā, in-ūi nî-nî chiàn-cheng, Siam-lô keng-chè chin kín-tiuⁿ, moá-sì-kè ê ki-hng, chhiúⁿ-kiap kap hoān-choē. Koaⁿ-liâu chin hú-pāi, ap-pek peh-sèⁿ. Só͘-í Taksin ēng chin tiōng ê hêng-hoa̍t chhú-hoa̍t in, niū koaⁿ-liâu tùi i phó͘-phiàn put-boán.

Kin-kì Hoat-kok thoân-kàu-sū M. Descourvieres ê kóng-hoat, i toā pō͘-hūn sî-kan tī--leh kî-tó, chai-kài (齋戒) ia̍h-sī bêng-sióng, hi-bāng ka-kī poe kàu thiⁿ-téng. 1782 nî ê sî-hāu, i í-keng ū khong-tian ê pēⁿ, chiong bû-ko͘ ê koaⁿ-liâu kap ka-kī bó͘-kiáⁿ kuaiⁿ ji̍p kaⁿ-lô, pek in jīn-choē.[54]

1782 nî, Phraya San tī àm-mê hoat-tōng chèng-piàn,[55] chiàm-niá Thonburi. Taksin bô chò hoán-khòng hiòng i tâu-hâng. I iau-kiû pó-miā, kàu Wat Chaeng (kin-á-ji̍t Wat Arun) chò hoê-siūⁿ.[56] Thonburi hoat-seng giâm-tiōng ê hūn-loān. Somdet Chao Phraya Maha Ksatriyaseuk (Rama 1-sè) thiaⁿ-kóng í-āu, tùi Kampuchea tńg-lâi, tìn-ap poān-loān, khoe-ho̍k liáu siú-to͘ ê tia̍t-sū.

Kin-kì Thài-kok hông-ka pian-nî-sú ê kóng-hoat, Maha Ksatriyaseuk koat-tēng hùi-tû Taksin ê ông-ūi, phoàⁿ i sí-hêng. Maha Ksatriyaseuk jīn-ûi i ê hêng-ûi bē tō-tek bē kong-chèng, tùi kok-ka siong-hāi chin toā, só͘-í eng-kai phoàⁿ sí-hêng.[56] Taksin iau-kiû kap Maha Ksatriyaseuk kìⁿ-bīn, Maha Ksatriyaseuk kī-choa̍t. 1782 nî 4 goe̍h 10 ji̍t, Taksin tī Phra Racha Wang Derm piⁿ-á ê Wichai Prasit thâi-thâu, tī Wat Bang Yi Ruea Tai lo̍h-chòng. Maha Ksatriyaseuk chū-chheng kok-ông, chiong siú-to͘ poaⁿ khì Bangkok ê Rattanakosin Tó, kiàn-li̍p Rattanakosin Ông-kok kap Chakri Ông-tiâu.[57]

Oa̍t-lâm ê bûn-hiàn kóng Taksin sī tī Wat Chaeng siū Thài-kok ông-cho̍k ê kan samret thot duai thon chan hêng-hoa̍t, long ji̍p moâ-tē lāi-bīn ēng kùn-á phah--sí.[58] Kî-thaⁿ kì-lo̍k kóng phah--sí ê sī i ê thè-sin, i hō͘ Maha Ksatriyaseuk ún tī Nakhon Si Thammarat soaⁿ-khu, i tī 1825 nî chiah koè-sin.[59]

Taksin kap i cha-bó͘-lâng ê kut-hu lo̍h-chòng tī kin-á-ji̍t Thonburi Khu Wat Intharam ê nn̄g ê siá-lī-thah (舍利塔, stupa) lāi-bīn.[60]

Tùi chèng-piàn ê phêng-lūnSiu-kái

Iáu bē-hiáu Maha Ksatriyaseuk (Rama 1-sè) tī chia chèng-piàn lāi-bīn sī ián siáⁿ kak-sek. Oa̍t-lâm ê hông-ka pian-nî-sú kóng chia̍h-lāu ê i ū khong-tian ê pēⁿ, chiong Maha Ksatriyaseuk kap Surasih ê kiáⁿ-jî kuaiⁿ ji̍p kaⁿ-lô. Che tāi-chì niū nn̄g ê hiaⁿ-tī chin put-boán, só͘-í kap nn̄g ê Oa̍t-lâm chiong-kun Nguyễn Hữu Thoại (阮有瑞) kap Hồ Văn Lân (胡文璘) kau pêng-iú, chiù-choā tī āu-pái sio-kīng. Bô-goā-kú Siam-lô hoat-seng chèng-piàn, Ksatriyaseuk tńg kàu Thonburi, chiong Taksin thâi--sí. Ū ê Oa̍t-lâm bûn-hiàn kóng Taksin hō͘ Ksatriyaseuk phài lâng àm-sat;[61][62] kî-thaⁿ ê kóng i sī hō͘ phoàⁿ sí-hêng kong-khai thâi--sí.[63] Phraya San iā tī chia sū-kiāⁿ lāi-bīn koè-sin.

Lēng-goā ê koan-tiám jīn-ûi Maha Ksatriyaseuk (Rama 1-sè) bē-sióng chò kok-ông, khòng-kò Taksin sī chi̍t ê Tiong-kok-lâng, í-āu ê le̍k-sú tùi Rama 1-sè ê teng-ki ha̍p-hoa̍t-hoà. Chiàu Nidhi Eoseewong ê kóng-hoa̍t, Taksin sī chi̍t chióng sin-sek ê léng-tō-jîn, i chiong kok-ka ê khoân-le̍k hā-hòng kàu Hoâ-jîn sin kùi-cho̍k, in sī i chiàn-cheng ê chú-iàu pang-chō͘-chiá.[64] Maha Ksatriyaseuk kap i ê chi-chhî-chiá sī Ayutthaya kū kùi-cho̍k, tùi chia piàn-hoà chin put-boán. Tān-sī chia koan-tiám bô chù-ì kàu Maha Ksatriyaseuk ka-kī iā ū Hoâ-jîn hiat-thóng, pēng-chhiáⁿ chhoā Taksin ê chi̍t ê chá-bó͘-kiáⁿ chò sè-î. Bûn-hiàn iā bô kok-ông kap Hoâ-jîn seng-lí-lâng in-ūi bí-kè khòng-chè-khoân hoat-seng chhiong-tu̍t ê kì-chài. Lūn-chin lâi kóng, Maha Ksatriyaseuk tī hia sî-hāu í-keng sī khoân-le̍k choè toā ê kùi-cho̍k, choè ū chiâm-le̍k chò sin ê léng-tō-jîn.

Kî-thaⁿ koan-tiám jīn-ūi Siam-lô khiàm Tiong-kok ê chè chin chē, bô-hoat-tō͘ hêng siàu. Ūi-tio̍h chhú-siau chè-bū, Taksin jīm-bēng Maha Ksatriyaseuk chò kok-ông, ké-chong ka-kī hō͘ i thâi--sí.[65] Tān-sī kin-kì Tiong-kok bûn-hiàn ê kì-chài, Rama 1-sè ún-moâ ka-kī kap Taksin ê chin-si̍t koan-hē; tùi Tiong-kok ê goā-kau siōng, Rama 1-sè ēng Tēⁿ Hoâ (鄭華) ê ké-miâ, ké-chong ka-kī sī Taksin ê kiáⁿ,[66][67] ēng lâi chèng-bêng ka-kī sī Siam-lô ông-ūi ê ha̍p-hoat kè-sêng-chiá.[68]

Ûi-sánSiu-kái

 
Wongwian Yai ê Taksin Tāi-tè tiau-siōng.

Ū kek-chìn ê le̍k-sú-ha̍k-ka jīn-ûi Taksin sī chi̍t ê kap Ayutthaya kok-ông bē it-iūⁿ ê kok-ông, i tī chhut-sin, chèng-chhek kap léng-tō hong-sek tāi-piáu chi̍t ê sin ê kai-kip (階級). Tùi Rattanakosin Ông-kok kiàn-li̍p kàu 1932 nî Siam-lô Kek-bēng ûi-chí ê sî-kî lāi-bīn, Taksin bô chiūⁿ kî-thaⁿ Siam-lô kok-ông hit khoán siū kàu chun-kèng, in-ūi Chakri Ông-tiâu ê kok-ông kiaⁿ ka-kī ê ha̍p-hoat-sèng ui-hia̍p. 1932 nî, Siam-lô hùi-tû choa̍t-tùi kun-chú-chè, khai-sí bîn-chú sî-tāi, Taksin siū kàu koh-khah chē ê chun-kèng, piàn-sêng bîn-cho̍k eng-hiông. Plaek Pibulsonggram téng-téng ê chiong-kun hi-bāng bí-hoà le̍k-sú siōng te̍k-tēng ê jîn-bu̍t, ēng lâi soan-thoân ka-kī bîn-cho̍k-chú-gī, khok-tiong-chú-gī (擴張主義) kap ài-kok-chú-gī ê chèng-chhek.

Chi̍t ê 9 kong-chhioh koân ê Taksin tiau-siōng li̍p tī Thonburi ê Wongwian Yai, tī Prajadhipok, Inthara Phithak, Lat Ya, Somdet Phra Chao Taksin 4 tiâu lō͘ tiong-ng. Taksin chiàⁿ-chhiú gia̍h kiàm, khiā tī 8.90 × 1.80 × 3.90 kong-chhioh ê ki-chō siōng. Chia kì-liām-pi tī 1954 nî 4 goe̍h 17 ji̍t kiat-bō͘. Kin-á-ji̍t, Taksin ka-bián chò kok-ông ê ji̍t-kî 12 goe̍h 28 ji̍t hō͘ khak-tēng chò "Taksin Tāi-tè Ji̍t" (วันสมเด็จพระเจ้าตากสินมหาราช), tān-sī m̄-sī kong-chiòng ká-kî. Tī chit ji̍t, Thài-kok kok-ông ē lâi chia tùi i piáu-sī chun-kèng.[69]

Chantaburi chhī-chèng-thiaⁿ tùi-bīn ke ū Taksin khiâ-bé ê tiau-siōng, pinn--á poê-phoāⁿ sī i ê 4 ūi tiong-sêng ê chiong-kun: Pra Chiang-ngen (Phraya Sukhothai), Luang Pichai-asa (Phraya Phichai), Luang Prom-sena kap Luang Raj-saneha.[70]

1981 nî, Thài-kok gī-hoē thong-koè koat-gī, hō͘ i "Tāi-tè" (大帝, มหาราช) ê thâu-hâm. Thài-kok Gîn-hâng hoat-hêng tē 12 pán choá-phiò, lóng-chóng ū 10 baht, 20 baht kap 100 baht, oē ê lóng sī Thài-kok le̍k-sú siōng ê kúi ê "Tāi-tè". 20 baht oē ê sī Taksin.[71]

Kiáⁿ-jîSiu-kái

Taksin ū 21 ê kiáⁿ-jî:[1]

  • Kong-chú Praphaiphak
  • Kong-chú Sumali
  • Ông-chú Thamrong
  • Kong-chú Lamang
  • Kong-chú Sangwan
  • Ông-chú Khanthawong
  • Ông-chú Mekhin
  • Ông-chú Isinthon
  • Ông-chú Bua
  • Ông-chú
  • Ông-chú Nu Daeng
  • Kong-chú Sut Chatri
  • Ông-chú Noi (Chao Phraya Nakhon Si Thammarat)
  • Ông-chú Thong-in (Chao Phraya Nakhon Ratchasima)

Chù-káiSiu-kái

  1. 1.0 1.1 ธำรงศักดิ์ อายุวัฒนะ. ราชสกุลจักรีวงศ์ และราชสกุลสมเด็จพระเจ้าตากสินมหาราช (ēng Thài-kok-gí). Bangkok: สำนักพิมพ์บรรณกิจ. p. 490. ISBN 974-222-648-2. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Lintner, p. 112
  3. Woodside 1971, p. 8.
  4. Wyatt, 140
  5. "Wat Choeng Thar's official website". iGetWeb. March 29, 2010 khòaⁿ--ê. Pang-bô͘:DL
  6. พระราชวรวงศ์เธอ กรมหมื่นพิทยาลงกรณ์. สามกรุง (ēng Thài-kok-gí). Bangkok: สำนักพิมพ์คลังวิทยา. pp. 54–58. 
  7. "Art&Culture ,100" (ēng Thài-kok-gí). Crma.ac.th. goân-loē-iông tī 2009-06-22 hőng khó͘-pih. 2010-03-29 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  8. 8.0 8.1 W.A.R.Wood, p. 253
  9. Damrong Rajanubhab, pp. 401–402
  10. Damrong Rajanubhab, p. 388
  11. Damrong Rajanubhab, p. 385
  12. Sunthorn Phu (2007). Nirat Phra Bart (นิราศพระบาท) (ēng Thài-kok-gí). Kong Toon (กองทุน). pp. 123–124. ISBN 978-974-482-064-8. 
  13. "Palaces in Bangkok". Mybangkokholiday.com.'.' Retrieved September 25, 2009.
  14. Wyatt, p.141
  15. Syamananda, p. 94
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  17. Damrong Rajanubhab, pp. 414–415
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Chham-khóSiu-kái

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  • Chris Baker, Pasuk Phongpaichit. A History of Thailand. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81615-7. 
  • Chula Chakrabongse, Prince. Lords of Life : A History of the Kings of Thailand. Alvin Redman Limited. 
  • Damrong Rajanubhab, Prince (1920). The Thais Fight the Burmese (ēng Thài-kok-gí). Matichon. ISBN 978-974-02-0177-9. 
  • David K. Wyatt. Thailand: A Short History. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-03582-9. ; Siamese/Thai history and culture–Part 4
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  • Editors of Time Out. Time Out Bangkok: And Beach Escapes. Time Out. ISBN 1-84670-021-3. 
  • Gary G. Hamilton (2006). Commerce and Capitalism in Chinese Societies. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-15704-8. 
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  • Paul M. Handley. The King Never Smiles. London : Country Life. ISBN 0-300-10682-3. 
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Gōa-pō͘ liân-kiatSiu-kái