Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok

(Tùi Tiong-kok choán--lâi)
Chia kài-siāu chit-má it-poaⁿ kóng ê kok-ka Tiong-kok, nā hâm-hô͘ ê "Tiong-kok" khài-liām, khòaⁿ Tiong-kok (iōng-gí).

Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok (Hàn-jī: 中華人民共和國; Kán-hòa-jī: 中华人民共和国; Eng-gí: People's Republic of China), kán-chheng Tiong-kok (中國, Kán-hòa-jī: 中国), sī tiàm tī Tang A-chiusī ê siā-hōe-chú-gī kok-ka, tī 1949-nî 10 go̍eh 1 ji̍t sêng-li̍p, siú-to͘ tī Pak-kiaⁿ-chhī.[1] Tiong-kok , thó͘-tē bīn-chek tāi-iok sī 960 bān pêng-hong kong-lí, sī sè-kài siōng pâi tī chêng kúi miâ ê kok-ka.[chù 1][2]

Tiong-hoâ Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok
中华人民共和国
Tiong-kok kî-á
kok-kî
Tiong-kok kok-hui
kok-hui
Kok-koa: 义勇军进行曲
"Gī-ióng-kun chìn-hêng-khek"
CHN orthographic.svg
Siú-to͘ Pak-kiaⁿ
Siāng-tōa siâⁿ-chhī Siōng-hái
Koaⁿ-hong gí-giân Hàn-gí Phó͘-thong-ōe
sêng-jīn ê tē-hng gí-giân
Chèng-hú tan-it-chè, Marx-Lenin-chú-gī, it-tóng-chè, Siā-hōe-chú-gī, kiōng-hô-kok
• kok-ka chú-se̍k
Si̍p Kīn-pêng (mā sī Tiong Kiōng chóng-su-kì)
• kok-bū-īⁿ chóng-lí
Lí Khek-kiông
• Jîn-tāi úi-oân-tiúⁿ
La̍t Chiàn-su
• Chèng-hia̍p chú-se̍k
Ang Iông
Li̍p-hoat ki-kò͘ Choân-kok Jîn-bîn Tāi-piáu Tāi-hōe
Bīn-chek
• Lóng-chóng
9,596,961 km2 (3,705,407 sq mi) (tē 3 miâ)
• chúi-he̍k (%)
2.8
Jîn-kháu
• 2020 nî phó͘-cha
Neutral increase 1,411,778,724
• Bi̍t-tō͘
145/km2 (375.5/sq mi) (tē 83 miâ)
GDP (PPP) 2021 nî kó͘-kè
• Lóng-chóng
Increase $26.66 bān-ek (tē 1 miâ)
• Pêng-kin
Increase $18,931 (tē 100 miâ)
GDP (bêng-gī) 2021 nî kó͘-kè
• Lóng-chóng
Increase $16.64 bān-ek (tē 2 miâ)
• Pêng-kin
Increase $11,819 (tē 56 miâ)
Gini (2018 nî) Negative increase 46.7
ko
HDI (2019 nî) Increase 0.761
ko · tē 85 miâ
Hoè-pè Jîn-bîn-pè (元/¥) (CNY)
Sî-khu UTC+8 (CST)
Sî-kan keh-sek yyyy-mm-dd
yyyymd (CE; CE-1949)
Siong-iōng tiān-goân 220 V–50 Hz
Khui-chhia hong-hiòng
Tiān-oē khu-hō +86
ISO 3166 tāi-hō CN
Siōng-téng domain .cn
.中国
.中國

Tiong-kok ū 34 ê it-kip hêng-chèng-khu, pau-koat 23 ê séng,[chù 2] 5 ê chū-tī-khu, 4 ê ti̍t-hat-chhī, kap 2 ê te̍k-pia̍t hêng-chèng-khu.

Tiong-kok ê jîn-kháu chhiau-kòe 14 ek (2022 nî), sī bo̍k-chêng sè-kài siōng jîn-kháu siōng chē ê kok-ka. Tiong-kok mā sī chi̍t ê to-bîn-cho̍k kok-ka, ū 56 ê bîn-cho̍k, kî-tiong Hàn-cho̍k jîn-kháu siōng chē, chiàm siōng-bô 9 siâⁿ.[3]

Tiong-kok ê kok-gíHôa-gí, chèng-sek chheng-ho͘ sī Hiān-tāi Piau-chún Hàn-gí chi-tiong ê Phó͘-thong-ōe, i sú-iōng ê bûn-jī sī kui-hoān Hàn-jī, mā kiò-chò kán-hòa-jī.

Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok bo̍k-chêng sī sè-kài tē-2 tōa keng-chè-thé, 2021 nî Tiong-kok ê GDP ū 17.7 tiāu Bí-kim, àn-chiàu kok-chè hōe-lu̍t kè-sǹg, pâi sè-kài tē-jī, kan-taⁿ su Bí-kok, àn-chiàu kò͘-bé-le̍k pêng-kè lâi kè-sǹg, sī sè-kài tē-it.[4] 1978 nî Kái-kek khai-hòng āu, Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok sī keng-chè sêng-tióng siōng kín ê chi̍t ê chú-iàu keng-chè-thé,[5][6] i ê GDP sêng-tióng-lu̍t tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ sī sè-kài thâu 20 miâ keng-chè-thé chi-tiong siōng koân ·ê.

Kok-miâSiu-kái

Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok kok-miâ tiong, “Tiong-hôa” tāi-piáu Tiong-hôa Bîn-cho̍k, “jîn-bîn” tāi-piáu kang-lâng, chò-sit-lâng, sió chu-sán kai-kip kap bîn-cho̍k chu-sán kai-kip, “kiōng-hô-kok” tāi-piáu i ê kok-thé.

Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok ū-sî ē hō͘ lâng kiò-chò “Sin Tiong-kok”, che sī beh hām Sin Bīn-chú Chú-gī Kek-bēng sî-kî ê “Kū Tiong-kok” chò khu-hun. M̄-kò 1949 nî kàu 1971 nî chi-kan, Tiong-hôa Bîn-kok Chèng-hú î-sóa khì Tâi-oân liáu-āu, iu-goân hō͘ kok-chè siā-hōe tòng-chò sī Tiong-kok chèng-hú, jî-chhiáⁿ tī Liân-ha̍p-kok tiong koh chiàm-iú Tiong-kok ê se̍k-chhù; chit-ê sî-chūn ê Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok hō͘ lâng kiò-chò “Âng-sek Tiong-kok” (紅色中國; Eng-gí: Red China) ia̍h-sī “Kiōng-sán Tiong-kok” (共產中國; Eng-gí: Communist-controlled China), chóng-·sī i oân-á kian-chhî i ka-kī sī tāi-piáu Tiong-kok ê î-it ha̍p-hoat chèng-hú.

1971 nî 10 goe̍h, Liân-ha̍p-kok Tāi-hōe thong-kòe Liân-ha̍p-kok Tāi-hōe Tē 2758 Hō Koat-gī, Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok tùi hit-sî khai-sí chhú-tit “Tiong-kok” ê se̍k-chhù kap siong-koan tē-ūi, “Tiong-kok” chit-ê sû mā chiām-chiām chiâⁿ-chò kok-chè siā-hōe tùi Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok ê chheng-ho͘. “Tiong” (中) ia̍h-sī “Hôa” (華) chia-ê kán-chheng mā tiāⁿ-tiāⁿ lóng sī teh chí-chheng Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok, chhiūⁿ-kóng “Tiong-Ji̍t koan-hē”, “chū-Hôa tāi-sài” téng-téng.

1949 nî í-āu, khòng-chè Tâi-oân tē-khu ê Tiong-hôa Bîn-kok Chèng-hú kàu-taⁿ iáu-bōe tī hiàn-hoat chân-kip chú-tiuⁿ i ka-kī kap Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok sī bô-kâng ê nn̄g ê chú-khoân kok-ka, só͘-í i bô ài iōng chèng-sek kok-miâ lâi chheng-ho͘ Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok, tian-tò sī kā i kiò-chò “Tiong-kok Tāi-lio̍k”, “Tāi-lio̍k”, “Tāi-lio̍k Tong-kio̍k”, “Pak-kiaⁿ Tong-kio̍k”, ia̍h “Tiong-kiōng” téng-téng. Sī-kóng, Bîn-chú Chìn-pō͘ Tóng chip-chèng sî-kî, Tiong-hôa Bîn-kok Chèng-hú ū-sî mā ē ti̍t-chiap kóng “Tiong-kok” ia̍h-sī “Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok”.[7]

Tē-líSiu-kái

Siông-sè chhiáⁿ khoàⁿ: Tiong-kok tē-lí

Niá-thó͘Siu-kái

Tiong-kok ê hoat-tēng kiong-he̍k pak chì Hek-liông-kang-séng Bô͘-hô-koān ê Hek-liông-kang hô-chhoan hâng-tō tiong-sim-tiám, tang chì Hek-liông-kang kap O͘-so͘-lí-kang ha̍p-káng ê Heixiazi-tó, sai chì Sin-kiong Uyghur Chú-tī-khu Ulugqat-koān se-hng ê Pamir koân-phiâⁿ, lâm chì Hái-lâm-séng koán-hat chi-hā, Lâm-soa Kûn-tó ê Chan-bú Àm-soa. Tang-sai kī-lī tāi-iok ū 5,200 km (hāⁿ-kòe 5 ê sî-khu), lâm-pak kī-lī tāi-iok ū 5,500 km.

Tiong-kok ê hái-hōaⁿ-sòaⁿ ū 18,000 km, óa-kīn Pu̍t-hái, N̂g-hái, Tang Tiong-kok Hái, Lâm Tiong-kok Hái, kî-tiong Pu̍t-hái sī Tiong-kok ê lāi-hái, lāi-hái kap piⁿ-hái chúi-he̍k bīn-chek tāi-iok 470 bān km2. iân-hái tó-sū ū 5000 gōa ê. Tiong-kok koh ū 3 ê chú-iàu ê hái-kiap: Pu̍t-hái Hái-kiap, O͘-chúi-kau, Khêng-chiu Hái-kiap.

Tiong-kok ê pian-kài-sòaⁿ lóng-chóng ū 22000 gōa km, sui-jiân iá ū chèng-gī, iû-goân sī sè-kài siōng tn̂g.[8] I ū 14 ê lio̍k-siōng lîn-kok, sè-kài siōng chē, kah Lō͘-se-a pêⁿ chē.

 
Tiong-kok ê tēng-hêng-tô͘

Tē-hêng kap khì-hāuSiu-kái

Tiong-kok ê tē-sè sī sai koân tang kē, ē-sái hun-chò saⁿ gám gám-á”. Tē-1 gám sī se-lâm-pō͘ ê Chheng-Chōng Ko-gôan mā hō͘ lâng kiò-chò “Sè-kài Chhù-chit”.

Le̍k-súSiu-kái

Kok-kiōng lāi-chiànSiu-kái

1917 nî Lō͘-se-a Cha̍p-goe̍h Kek-bēng sêng-kong, kiōng-sán-chú-gī thoân ·ji̍p-khì Tiong-kok. 1921 nî Tiong-kok Kiōng-sán TóngSiōng-hái sêng-li̍p, in ê bo̍k-phiau sī beh kiàn-ji̍p chi̍t ê bû-sán kai-chip choan-chèng ê chèng-khoân. Chi̍t-khai-sí, in ka-ji̍p Kiōng-sán Kok-chè chiap-siū chí-tō, koh kap Tiong-kok Kok-bîn Tóng ha̍p-chok, chham-ú Pak-hoa̍t Chiàn-cheng, m̄-koh 1927 nî Chiúⁿ Kài-chio̍h chò-thâu ê Tiong-kok Khòng-ji̍t Chiàn-cheng si̍t-si “Chheng-tóng”, nn̄g-pêng soah koan-hē phò-lia̍t, sòa·-lo̍h-lâi 10 nî ê sî-kan tō put-sî teh sio-chiàn. 1930 nî-tāi, í Mô͘ Te̍k-tong chò-thâu ê pún-thó͘ phài la̍k-khoân, kiàn-li̍p tē-it ê iû Kiōng-sán-tóng chip-chèng ê chèng-khoân: Tiong-hoâ Soviet Kiōng-hô-kok. Tiong-kok Khòng-ji̍t Chiàn-cheng sî-kî, Kiōng-sán Tóng koh-chài hām Kok-bîn-tóng ha̍p-chok, chhú-sî Kiōng-sán-tóng ê sè-le̍k tau̍h-tau̍h-á hùn-tōa.1945 nî Tiong-kok Khòng-ji̍t Chiàn-cheng kiat-sok liáu-āu, Kok-kiōng chi-kan ê chhiong-tu̍t ián-piàn chiâⁿ-chò Tē-jī-chhù Kok-Kiōng Lāi-chiàn, lo̍h-bóe, Tiong-kok Kiōng-sán Tóng léng-tō ê Tiong-kok Jîn-bîn Kái-hòng Kun phah-pāi Tiong-kok Kok-bîn Tóng ê Tiong-hôa Bîn-kok Kok-kun, thui-hoan Tiong-hôa Bîn-kok, chiàm-niá Tiong-kok Tāi-lio̍k, ah Chiúⁿ Kài-chio̍h kap i ê chèng-khoân tō͘-hái liû-bông kàu Tâi-oân tē-khu.

Kek-bēng Kiàn-siatSiu-kái

Kái-kek khai-hòngSiu-kái

Chèng-tīSiu-kái

 
Pak-kiaⁿ Tiong-an-ke tiong-ng ê Thian-an-mn̂g siâⁿ-lâu kap kóng-tiûⁿ sī Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok ê kok-ka kap chèng-tī siōng-teng.
 
Thian-an-mn̂g bīn-chêng ê tōa pak Mô͘ Te̍k-tong ōe-siōng sī ōe-ka Wang Guodong tī 1967 nî ōe ·ê. Siòng-phìⁿ ê chiân-kéng sī chi̍t sian Pak-kiaⁿ hong-siâⁿ ê suanni tiau-siōng, kiōng-kiōng só͘-ū ê chèng-hú ki-koan thâu-chêng lóng ū suanni, i sī kok-ka khoân-ui ê siōng-teng chi-it.

Kok-thé kap chèng-théSiu-kái

Àn-chiàu Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok Hiàn-hoat, Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok kok-thé sī ûi kang-lâng kai-chip léng-tō ê, í kang-lông liân-bêng ûi ki-chhó͘ ê, jîn-bîn bīn-chú choan-chèng ê siā-hōe-chú-gī kok-ka.[9] Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok mā sī sè-kài siōng chió-sò͘ iû kiōng-sán-tóng chip-chèng, jî-chhiáⁿ soan-iông kiōng-sán-chú-gī ê kok-ka chi-it.[10] Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok ê kok-ka ì-sek-hêng-thàiMá-khek-su-chú-gī, koh ū Tiong-kok Kiōng-sán Tóng tī Má-khek-su-chú-gī ê ki-chhó͘ siōng thê-chhut ê Mô͘ Te̍k-tong Su-sióng, Tēng Siáu-pêng Lí-lūn, Saⁿ ê Tāi-piáu, Kho-ha̍k Hoat-tián Koan, Si̍p Kīn-pêng Sin Sî-tāi Tiong-kok Te̍k-sek Siā-hōe-chú-gī Su-sióng téng-téng lí-lūn.[11][12] Kok-chèng hong-chiam pau-koat Jîn-bîn bîn-chú choan-chèng, Tiong-kok Te̍k-sek Siā-hōe-chú-gī kap Siā-hōe-chú-gī Chhī-tiúⁿ-keng-chè.[13]

Chèng-hú kiat-kò͘Siu-kái

Choân-kok Jîn-bîn Tāi-piáu Tāi-hōe (全國人民代表大會) sī kok-ka chòe-ko khoân-le̍k ki-koan; chú-iàu hêng-sú li̍p-hoat-khoân, pēng soán-chhut kok-ka goân-siú (Kok-ka Chú-se̍k), hêng-chèng ki-koan (Kok-bū-īⁿ), su-hoat ki-koan (Chòe-ko Jîn-bîn Hoat-īⁿ), kiám-chhat ki-koan (Chòe-ko Jîn-bîn kiám-chhat Īⁿ), kū-su ki-koan (Tiong-iong Kun-sū Úi-oân-hōe), kám-chhat ki-koan (Kok-ka Kàm-chhat Úi-oân-hōe) téng-téng ê.

Chèng-tī khoân-līSiu-kái

Hêng-chèng-khuSiu-kái

Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok hêng-chèng-khu tô͘ Chân-kip Hôa-hō, miâ, kán-chheng, séng-to͘/siú-hú
Séng
Chú-tī-khu
Ti̍t-hat-chhī
Te̍k-pia̍t Hêng-chèng-khu

Keng-chèSiu-kái

Keng-chè chōng-hóngSiu-kái

Lêng-goân kap khòng-sánSiu-kái

Tiong-kok sī sè-kài siōng gâu khai lêng-goân ê kok-ka, mā sī lêng-goân seng-sán siōng chē ê kok-ka. 2016 nî seng-sán tiān-le̍k 5.883 tiāu tō͘ tiān, siau-mô͘ 5.564 tiāu tō͘ tiān.[14]

Kau-thongSiu-kái

Siông-sè chhiáⁿ khoàⁿ: Tiong-kok ê kau-thong

Tiong-kok ū thih-lō͘ hē-thóng, kong-lō͘ hē-thóng, hâng-khong hē-thóng, hâng-ūn hē-thóng kap pipeline ūn-su kò͘-sêng ê kau-thong ūn-su-bāng.

Kok-chè bō͘-e̍kSiu-kái

Tiong-kok sī Sè-kài Bō͘-e̍k Cho͘-chit ê sêng-goân, i sī tī 2001 nî ká-ji̍t-·khì ·ê.[15]

Kho-kiSiu-kái

Chū-sìn kho-kiSiu-kái

Tiong-kok ū Hôa-ûi, Lenovo chi̍p-thoân, Siáu-bí Kho-ki, OPPO téng-téng kò-jîn tiān-náu kap chhiū-ki kong-si.

Jîn-kháuSiu-kái

Cho̍k-kûnSiu-kái

Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok ê hoat-tēng bîn-cho̍k ū 56 ê, ha̍p-chheng Tiong-hôa Bîn-cho̍k, kî-tiong ê chú-thé sī Hàn-cho̍k. Tû-khì Hàn-cho̍k lia̍h-gōa ê 55 cho̍k lóng hŏng kiò-chò “siáu-sò͘ bîn-cho̍k”,

Gí-giân kap bûn-jīSiu-kái

Siông-sè chhiáⁿ khoàⁿ: Tiong-kok ê gí-giân

Tiong-kok ê gí-giân chin chē, ē-sái hun-c 5 ê hò gí-giân ka-cho̍k: Hàn-chōng gí-hē, Altai gí-hē, Lâm-tó gí-hē, Lâm-a gí-hē, Ìn-au gí-hē.[16] Hàn-chōng gí-hē ē-kha ê Hàn-gí sī Tiong-kok lāi-té sú-iōng jîn-kháu siōng chē ·ê, mā sī sè-kài siōng sú-iōng jîn-kháu siōng ·ê. Hàn-gí ē-kha pau-hâm 7 ê tōa hun-chi: Koaⁿ-ōe, Ngô͘-gí, Oa̍t-gí, Bân-gí, Siong-gí, Kàm-gí, Kheh-ka-gí, in hō͘ Tiong-kok ê gí-giân-ha̍k-ka tòng-chò Hân-gí ê “hong-giân”.[17]

Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok tī 2000 nî thong-kòe Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok Thong-iōng Gí-giân Bûn-jī Hoat, i-hoat chiong Phó͘-thong-ōe kap kui-hoān Hàn-jī tēng ûi kok-ka thong-iōng gí-giân bûn-jī, í-piān choân-kok kok-cho̍k jîn-bîn ko͘-thong kau-liû.[18] Chèng-hú ūn-hù tī te̍k-tēng chêng-hêng hā pó-liû hoân-thé hàn-jī, jî-chhiáⁿ hō͘ kok bîn-cho̍k ē-sái khì sú-iōng kap hoat-tián ka-kī ê gí-giân kap bûn-jī.[19] Kok-ka thong-iōng-gí Phó͘-thong-ōe sī “í Pak-kiaⁿ gí-im ûi phiau-chún im, í pak-hng-ōe ûi ki-chhó͘ hong-giân, í tián-hoān ê hiān-tāi pe̍h-ōe-bûn tù-chok ûi gí-hoat kui-hoān.”[16][20]

Tiong-kok ê siáu-sò͘ cho̍k-kûn mā sú-iōng in ka-kī ê gí-giân, pí-lūn-kóng Bông-kó͘-gí, Chōng-gí, Uyghur-gí, Kazakh-gí, Tiâu-sián-gí, Î-gí, Chòng-gí téng-téng.

Sui-jiân Tiong-kok tī hoat-lu̍t siōng siá kóng ē pó-chiong só͘-ū gí-giân, si̍t-chè-siōng put-sî leh táⁿ-ap Phó͘-thong-ōe lia̍h-gōa ê gí-giân. Pí-lūn-kóng tī siáu-sò͘ bîn-cho̍k tē-khu, Tiong-kok chèng-hú chiām-chiām hān-chè siáu-sò͘ bîn-cho̍k sú-iōng bîn-cho̍k gí-giân lâi kha-chheh, chhut-pán, chhiūⁿ Bông-kó͘-gí, Chōng-gí, Uyghur-gí lóng ū siū-hāi ê kì-lio̍k, chit khoán chêng-hêng mā put-sî leh siū-tio̍h jîn-khoân jîn-sū ê phoe-phêng.[21][22][23]

Chong-kàu sìn-ióngSiu-kái

Siông-sè chhiáⁿ khoàⁿ: Tiong-kok ê chong-kàu

Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok ê koaⁿ-hong li̍p-tiûⁿ sī bû-sîn-lūn, bô siat-tì hoat-tēng chong-kàu, chèng-hú chi-chhî pēng chip-hêng hoán-chong-kàu ūn-tōng. Sui-jiân Hiàn-hoat pó-chiong chong-kàu chū-iû,[9] koh ū Kok-ka Chong-kàu Sū-bū Kio̍k koán-lí kok-lāi chong-kàu sū-bū, tān-sī bô hō͘ chèng-hú phoe-chún ê chong-kàu cho͘-chit ē siū-tio̍h, ah-chē sīm-chì phò-hāi.[24]

Bûn-hòaSiu-kái

Bûn-ha̍kSiu-kái

Gē-su̍tSiu-kái

Thé-io̍kSiu-kái

Koh khòaⁿSiu-kái

Pī-chùSiu-kái

  1. Nā sī bô pau-koat lio̍k-tē téng-koân ê chúi-he̍k, Tiong-kok sī tē-2 tōa; nā-sī sǹg chóng-bīn-chek, i sī tē-3 ia̍h tē-4 tōa. Bô-kâng ê kè-sǹg hong-sek ē hō͘ Tiong-kok kap Bí-kok ê pâi-miâ bô-kâng.
  2. Pau-koat i seng-chheng ûi niá-thó͘ tān bô si̍t-chè thóng-tī ê Tâi-oân-séng. Si̍t-chè koán-hat ·ê ū 22 ê séng.

Chham-khó chu-liāuSiu-kái

  1. "Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok siú-to͘". Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok Tiong-iong Jîn-bîn Chèng-hú. 2022-05-26 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  2. Countries of the world ordered by land area Archived 2010-03-05 at the Wayback Machine.. List of countries of the world in alphabetical order. [2022-05-26] (Eng-gí).
  3. 曹晓轩 (2012-04-20). "2010 nî Tē-6 Kài Choân-kok Jîn-kháu Phó͘-cha Chú-iàu Sò͘-kì Kong-pò" (ēng Hôa-gí). Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok Kok-bū-īⁿ. 2016-01-22 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  4. Garry White (2013-02-10). "China trade now bigger than US". The Telegraph (ēng Eng-gí). 2022-05-26 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  5. Carl J. Dahlman和Jean-Eric Aubert (2001年). "China and the Knowledge Economy: Seizing the 21st Century. WBI Development Studies" (ēng Eng-gí). Education Resources Information Center. 2016-01-22 khòaⁿ--ê.   
  6. Angus Maddison (2007年). "Chinese Economic Performance in the Long Run" (PDF) (ēng Eng-gí). Keng-chè Ha̍p-chok kap Hoat-tián Cho͘-chit. goân-loē-iông (PDF) tī 2014-10-15 hőng khó͘-pih. 2016-01-22 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  7. "【圖表】台灣或中華民國?中國還是中國大陸?四位總統任內這樣叫". If Lin (ēng Hôa-gí). The News Lens. 2018-08-23. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 2021-10-30. 2022-05-26 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  8. "中国与邻国边界问题现状:约90%陆地边界已划定" (ēng Hôa-gí). 搜狐新闻中心. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 2013-12-17. 2010-04-01 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  9. 9.0 9.1 "中华人民共和国宪法" (ēng Hôa-gí). 中国政府网. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 2018-03-22. 2022-05-26 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  10. 人民網. 黨的最終目標是什麼?共產主義社會有哪些基本特徵?. 中國共產黨新聞網. 2007年9月1日 [2016年1月22日]
    1. REDIRECT Template:Zh-hans.
  11. 白墨 (2015-05-25). 「四個全面」:習近平為「中國夢」解夢. BBC中文網. BBC. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 2022-05-23. 2022-05-26 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  12. 习近平在中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会上的报告. 党史教育学习网 (ēng Hôa-gí). 2017-10-28. goân-loē-iông tī 2022-05-23 hőng khó͘-pih. 2022-05-26 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  13. An. Xi reiterates adherence to socialism with Chinese characteristics Archived 2013-12-06 at the Wayback Machine.. Sin-hôa-siā. 2013-01-05 [2016-01-22] (Eng-gí).
  14. "The World Factbook - China" (ēng Eng-gí). CIA. 2022-05-20. 
  15. "China and the WTO" (ēng Eng-gí). WTO. 2022-05-27 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 中国语言文字概况. Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok Kàu-io̍k-pō͘ (ēng Hôa-gí). 中国政府网. 2019-03-22. goân-loē-iông tī 2022-03-22 hőng khó͘-pih. 2022-05-26 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  17. 我国汉语七大方言区 (ēng Hôa-gí). 江山文艺广场. 2007-10-03. goân-loē-iông tī 2011-11-06 hőng khó͘-pih. 2022-05-27 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  18. 第九屆全國人民代表大會常務委員會 (2005-08-31). "中华人民共和国国家通用语言文字法" (ēng Hôa-gí). 中華人民共和國政府. 2016-02-17 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  19. Tiong-hôa Jîn-bîn Kiōng-hô-kok Thong-iōng Gí-giân Bûn-jī Hoat. Pak-kiaⁿ: Choân-kok Jîn-bîn Tāi-piáu Tāi-hōe Siông-bū Úi-oân-hōe. 2000-10-31. (ēng Hôa-gí)
  20. Language Planning and Policy in Asia, Vol.1: Japan, Nepal and Taiwan and Chinese Characters. Multilingual Matters. 2008年8月7日: 第42頁 [2016年1月24日]. ISBN 978-1847690951 (Eng-gí).
  21. "Ethnic Mongolians in China protest removal of traditional language in schools" (ēng Eng-gí). Reuters. 2020-09-02. goân-loē-iông tī 2021-12-12 hőng khó͘-pih. 2022-05-27 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  22. "China's "Bilingual Education" Policy in Tibet—Tibetan-Medium Schooling Under Threat" (ēng Eng-gí). Human Rights Watch. 2020-03-04. goân-loē-iông tī 2022-05-26 hőng khó͘-pih. 2022-05-27 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  23. "Poetry, the soul of Uighur culture, on verge of extinction in Xinjiang". Lily Kuo. The Guadian. 2020-12-06. goân-loē-iông tī 2022-04-22 hőng khó͘-pih. 2022-05-27 khòaⁿ--ê. 
  24. 对华援助协会发布《中国大陆境内基督教会和基督徒遭受政府逼迫的2016年度报告》 (ēng Hôa-gí). 2017-03-03. Goân-pún bāng-ia̍h Pó-chûn tī 2022-04-05. 2022-05-27 khòaⁿ--ê. 

Gōa-pō͘ liân-kiatSiu-kái